Facade tiles are one of the most reliable and demanded options for outdoor decoration. It is made from a sand-cement mixture, so the material is environmentally friendly. Thanks to the simple technology of laying facade tiles, it can be used not only for decorating the facade. The material is also suitable for finishing basement rooms, balconies. Among all the variety of types and textures, you can easily choose the right option.
This material is used only for exterior decoration of buildings or their individual elements. Therefore, it has the following set of technical characteristics:
Due to the minimum number of pores, the material does not pass water through itself.
Average service life of facade tiles - from 50 years and more .
Any option can be used for facades.
Each of them has its own distinctive properties.
Table 1. Classification of facade tiles.
|Made of natural stone||Natural materials are used as raw materials||It weighs a lot, therefore it requires special care during installation. It looks solid and has a unique pattern, but if it is necessary to replace one or several elements, it will not be easy to find tiles that are close in color|
|Porcelain stoneware||A mixture of quartz, clay and spar|| Looks like natural stone, but is cheaper. |
Easily withstands moisture and temperature drops
|Concrete||Made on the basis of concrete, covered with special paint||Simulates any surface - marble, stone, brick. Suitable only for warm climates, because it is not resistant to temperature extremes|
|Clinker||Clay, dyes||Fired in a special ovens at 1200 ° C. Differs in increased wear resistance|
|Agglomerate||A mixture of quartz and synthetic additives||Obtained by plasma-vacuum sintering. It has increased strength, but at the same time it is lighter than brick and stone. Not suitable for carrying function|
Any of these varieties can be mounted by hand .
To do this, it is necessary to carry out preparatory work:
Tip! For greater security, a reinforcing mesh can be used. It is mounted in the process of plastering the walls.
Facade tiles are optional. If there is special equipment and the necessary knowledge, material can be made by hand .
Then you can develop your own unique samples, experiment with the composition. But it is better not to violate the basic proportions and production technology so that the product turns out with a good set of characteristics. There are two ways to make finishing material at home.
For this, the most affordable raw material option is used - concrete . To prepare the composition, you will need:
Important! If you do not add a plasticizer to the solution, it will not be frost-resistant and water-repellent.
To give the tiles the desired shade, you can add Stain to the concrete during the mixing step. But there is a more economical option - coating the inner surface of the mold with paint before pouring it with a solution.
Suitable for all types of finishing materials, but most often it is used for the manufacture of clinker tiles. Allows you to increase the density of the material without using a large volume of liquid.
For filling, polyurethane molds are used.
Clinker tiles are made as follows:
The result is a material with increased resistance to damage, so the need for repairs is minimized. After dismantling, such tiles can be used again .
There are two types of installation facing tiles - dry and wet.
Its second name is ventilated facade . With this mounting option, additional thermal insulation of the building is created.
This method is considered the most expensive and reliable . The dry version is more suitable for laying porcelain stoneware tiles, but it can also be used for installing other types of materials.
Its construction includes the following elements:
It is better to use non-combustible material - mineral wool as a heater. Installation is carried out in a certain order:
You need to outline two vertical lines and one horizontal.
Pay attention! If the facade tiles already have factory fixing plates, they are attached to the profile using self-tapping screws.
For fixing the tiles use a special mixture. The glue mortar is made on a cement-sand base.
It is better to take it from the same manufacturer as the tile. This method is more suitable for ceramic tiles.
Important! Only sunny weather is suitable for wet styling. In this case, the air temperature should be within + 5-25 degrees .
The installation process consists of several stages:
Wipe off excess glue with a piece of dry cloth. If you do all the work in accordance with the instructions, the tile will last a long time.
They are filled with a solution to tie all the elements into a single whole.
This also contributes to a reinforced sealing of the seams. After this procedure, the facade looks noble, and the finish is less exposed to the aggressive influence of the external environment. Grouting is carried out in several stages. Each of them has its own characteristics.
Moisten the joints. Before starting work, you need to wait until the mortar is completely dry - from 10 to 15 days . If you start grouting ahead of schedule, this will negatively affect the strength of the finish.
Attention! The water that is part of the glue mixture will not find a way out and will destroy the facade from the inside. This is especially dangerous for regions with extremely low air temperatures in winter.
Working with seams begins with moistening them. For this, a sprayer is used. Moistening with water improves adhesion between surfaces. It is necessary to moisten the seams in all directions - both horizontally and vertically.
Mixing the solution. A mixture based on lime and cement has good plasticity. It is easy to level and distribute on the work surface. Cement in its pure form is not suitable for this. It can only be used with the addition of plasticizers to ensure proper curing of the mixture.
To prepare the mortar, you will need the following components:
Liquid plasticizer can be used instead of lime. The solution is mixed in a certain order:
If you don't want to prepare the mixture yourself, you can buy a ready-made one. Then it is used in accordance with the instructions that are attached to it.
Pay attention! The strength of a solution depends not only on adherence to the technology of mixing it. This is also influenced by the base to which the mixture is applied. It should be clean and even.
Step 3. Filling the joints.
Fill the wetted surface with the ready-made solution. This is done as follows:
The consumption of the composition for tiles with a thickness of from 8 to 12 mm will be within 4-5 kg per 1 sq. m . Part of the grouting mixture crumbles during operation. In order to save on the floor, it is better to lay a clean plastic wrap. The spilled solution can be carefully collected and used as directed.
Gun for sealant
Step 4. Cleaning and moistening the joints. After tamping, the remaining mortar must be removed from the tile. To do this, the trim is gently swept with a soft bristled brush or a soft brush.
Tip! Movements are made diagonally.
Then you can easily remove the excess mixture without damaging the seams.
After that, the seams are sprayed with water from the spray. This helps prevent the mortar from drying out prematurely and cracking.
Clinker tiles are a material of increased strength . But in order for it to serve for a long time, it is necessary to observe the technology of working with it.
Installation of finishing material takes place in stages.
Plaster or reinforced concrete with increased frost resistance can be used as a base for finishing. Special requirements are imposed on the base:
There must be a layer of waterproofing to prevent moisture penetration and destruction of the facade.If there are fragile places on the base that crumble, they are removed.
All irregularities are leveled with plaster no later than 3 days before the start of installation.
Important! Optional thermal insulation can be installed. Then the heat will not spread to the external environment, pathogenic microorganisms and fungus will not penetrate into the house. At the same time, heating costs in the cold season will be reduced by almost half.
For this purpose, it is most convenient to use a mechanical mixer.
A solution is prepared from cement M-500 and sand in the ratio 1: 3 . Add water to this mixture in small portions and stir until the mass becomes plastic and homogeneous.
Ready-made mortar can also be used, but the scope of its application must correspond to the planned construction work. Such glue is most often applied to the tile itself, so you should not leave important notes or calculations on its inner side.
Attention! Do not apply too much adhesive mixture at once, otherwise the mass will be weathered or dry out.
Excess mortar is removed immediately before it hardens.
Before starting the installation process, the materials must be removed from the packaging and mixed so that there are no sharp deviations in color. Only slight differences in shade are allowed.
You can start laying only in good weather - at a temperature within + 5-30 degrees and there is no rain. If it is too hot outside or precipitation does not stop, and the work needs to be continued urgently, you can use to install a shelter in the form of an awning and background.
Tip! If clinker-coated thermal panels are used, they can be installed in all weather conditions. This will not affect the quality of the finish.
The clinker tiles are laid in a certain order:
To facilitate the installation process, you can use a special corner tile that emphasizes the lines of the walls and looks natural.
Pay attention! For ease of installation, the walls can be divided into conditional squares with a side 1 m .If the contours of the tiles do not fit into this shape, you can cut it off with a saw. "
In order for the facade finish to look harmonious and durable, it is recommended to adhere to the following tips:
Also, pay attention to our article on the topic - Facade tiles with metal fasteners, where we examined in detail the installation technology.
Facade tiles are becoming more and more popular, and the process of their installation is not very labor intensive. Even a beginner can cope with this, if he takes into account the laying technology. In order for the finish to look spectacular, perform a protective function and keep the heat inside the building longer, you need to carefully consider its installation.
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