According to statistical data, about 90% of houses in Russia do not meet modern heat-saving standards. To improve the situation, a number of legislative acts and sectoral decrees have been adopted recently to ensure the performance of buildings, taking into account the requirements, all new buildings are being erected using modern heat-saving technologies. But what about old buildings? It is necessary to insulate the facade walls, due to this, losses are reduced to 40%. There are quite a few heaters, in the article we will consider only one type of them - liquid.
Thermal insulation with liquid thermal insulation
Taking into account application technology, composition and performance characteristics, all types of liquid heaters can be conditionally divided into two types: ultra-thin and foam.
Ultra-thin (warm-colored paints) - the newest development of building materials technologists, universal application. Ultrathin insulation significantly reduces the cost of insulating facade walls, shortens the production time and improves quality. But they also have negative sides, we will talk about them in the course of the article.
Apartment insulated with a liquid heat insulator
Almost indistinguishable in appearance from ordinary acrylic paints, despite different trade names, they have an almost identical structure.
The structure of the heat paint
The material includes:
Diameter 0.05-0.1 mm;
Increases resistance to hard ultraviolet rays, compensates for thermal expansion, prevents the appearance of microcracks;
High-quality liquid heaters are highly effective, 1.2 mm of the coating in terms of heat-saving indicators correspond to 5 cm of mineral wool. The effect is achieved due to the presence of a large number of hollow microspheres, which minimizes losses due to ordinary convection.
Shiny microspheres additionally reflect infrared rays, the coating also works like a thermos.
Liquid thermal insulation AKTERM ™
Liquid thermal insulation Korund
Liquid thermal insulation Astratek
Comparative table of performance indicators of thermal paints and traditional insulation materials. The table uses the average characteristics of the paints.
Liquid heaters (thermal paints)
Pressed mineral wool
Expanded polystyrene sheet
|Thermal conductivity values W / m2 * s|| 0.0010-0. |
|Layer thickness with the same heat saving rates||1.0-1.3 mm||50 -60 mm||45-50 mm|
|Approximate cost of additional materials for installing heaters||0||550-650 rubles||450-550 rubles|
|The cost of construction work per 1 m2||150-160 rubles||600-650 rubles||450-500 rubles|
|The total cost of thermal insulation with the same heat saving rates for 1 m2||750-800 rubles||1200-1300 rubles||2500-2600 rubles|
Comparative table of economic efficiency
Liquidheaters can be applied with ordinary rollers and brushes or special sprays.
But there are also disadvantages of such materials:
We have already mentioned that these materials significantly deteriorate their properties due to long-term or improper storage. What to look for when buying colorants?
A ten-liter plastic bucket should weigh between 6-6.5 kg. If the weight is more, then such a heater is not worth purchasing, its application will not be effective.
The thicker this layer, the better the thermal insulation.
This does not apply to paints with mineral color additives.
For home insulation, use a high-quality thermal paint
The recommendations are simple, but very effective.The fact is that at present it is not worth paying the main attention to the cost of the goods; some manufacturers deliberately sell low-quality products at high prices in the hope of triggering the stereotype of choice.
Liquid thermal insulation
For example, consider the insulation of a brick wall without plaster. In the future, the facade will be covered with slabs using conventional technology.
Step 1. Assess the condition of the front walls, measure their area.
Select a specific brand of insulation. Decide how it will be applied: roller, brush or spray.
We do not recommend covering the walls with one layer of paint, depending on the thermal conductivity of the walls and the climatic zone of residence, you will need 2- 10 layers.
Practical advice. If your wall is relatively flat, you can paint with a roller. If there are deep seams, it is better to paint with a brush, the roller cannot paint such indentations. The best quality coating is obtained while working with a spray gun, this is a unit for universal use.
It should be remembered that painting a front wall several times with a brush is long and difficult.
Moreover, you will have to work on a ladder or scaffolding. Calculate your strengths and capabilities correctly.
Step 2. Smooth the wall surface as much as possible. Cut large pieces of mortar with a hammer or chisel, brush away dust.
Cleaning the wall
If there is soil contamination, it must be washed off. The paint will never stick in dirty meta. As a result, delamination, leakage, significant deterioration of heat-saving performance. The surface of the facade must be dry and the weather good.
Hose the walls with water
If your walls are heavily soiled with dirt , then use a special pressure washer
Wash mold from the walls with a solution of bleach and water
Prepare paint for use. Perform work in accordance with the instructions, the actual actions depend on the composition and solvent. The consistency should resemble liquid sour cream. Test the material on a small section of the wall. If the paint is too viscous, then dilute it in portions with constant stirring.
A large amount of water significantly reduces the thickness of one layer of the coating. As a result, you will have to increase their number, and this is an additional waste of time and effort.
Stir the ink before applying
Step 4. Pour the ink into the roller container. The roller should have a pile of medium length, such a tool captures more paint at a time.
Dip the roller in a container, take it out and spin it on a special platform. It is located slightly above the paint pouring point. Immerse the roller in the paint again and roll again on the pad. Do this until the roller absorbs the maximum amount of paint evenly around the entire circumference. Before removing the roller from the container, give it a rotation, in this state, the paint will not drip to the ground.
Step 5. Bring the roller up to the wall and press it down with moderate pressure. The first pass must be done from the bottom up, the surplus of the helmet will be squeezed out, immediately falling under the roller and evenly distributed over the surface of the front wall.
Start painting from above, moving the roller up and down, and gradually moving to other areas
Step 6. Paint the wall in patches, avoid gaps.
Remember that surfaces must not be exposed to rain for at least 24 hours. If the weather turns bad, protect the painted surfaces from getting wet. For protection, you can use plastic wrap, fix it to the facade wall or scaffolding, if any are used during work.
You will need a paint brush to paint over the places where you could not reach with a spray or roller.
Apply the second layer only after full polymerization of the first, if the first time you applied the insulation with vertical movements of the roller, then the second time you need to paint with horizontal movements.
Apply a second coat of paint
Plastered walls can be finished with colored heat paints, in this case the insulation will simultaneously act as a finishing decorative coating. In the same way, you can also insulate wooden surfaces, including log cabins from rounded logs.
Following a few general practical recommendations for applying thermal paints can reduce material consumption, reduce processing time and improve coating quality.
In these places, cold bridges are formed with all the negative consequences. Before applying paint in any way possible, level the surfaces, close up deep gaps and places that cannot be reached with a roller or brush. You need to know that even if these openings are tightened by liquid paint, then it will crack during drying and polymerization.
Stir the paint
Material technical names many, but all types are made on the basis of ordinary foam. During production, synthetic urea-formaldehyde resin, foaming agent, phosphoric acid and water are used. As can be seen from the chemical composition, it is only a stretch to call this product "environmentally friendly".
Liquid foam is especially harmful during application - be sure to protect your eyes and respiratory system. The density of the material depends on the amount of resin, pay attention to its percentage when purchasing goods and making foam.
Liquid foam is applied to the walls by a complex apparatus using compressed air in metal cylinders (mobile version) or connected to stationary compressor. The components are loaded into the mixer, water is added, the mixer is hermetically closed. Liquid foam is supplied to the surface under pressure, the thickness of the insulation layer is manually adjusted.
There is foam with high adhesion rates, it is used to insulate the open surfaces of facade walls for finishing. This technology is often used during the construction of frame houses. The inner space of wooden frames is insulated, and after the foam has set, the finishing of the facade surfaces of the bearing walls is done.
The second option is insulation of the space between the load-bearing wall and the facade cladding. Work can be performed both during new construction and when insulating old buildings with an air gap.
We will tell you about the second option in detail.
Insulation - liquid foam
Thermal insulation with liquid foam
Example of liquid foam insulation
The heat saving efficiency of unfilled air spaces is very low and never meets the design values. The fact is that the facade masonry of the wall has quite a lot of holes of various sizes. They are found in the seam between the bricks, and at the junction of window and door openings, and in the places where the rafter system is installed. At first glance, the holes are completely invisible, but as the space is filled with liquid foam, the material will show through in each of them, and you will be unpleasantly surprised by the large amount.
There is no need to get upset, after the foam hardens, it is carefully cut off, the visible cut is closed up. For such insulation works, a special liquid foam is used, which does not stick, but repels from the surfaces of architectural elements. This allows a large amount of space to be filled through one opening.
The foam will simply be cut off after solidification
Professional advice. Many inexperienced builders think that foam slabs laid in the air space between the wall and the cladding reliably insulate the house.
This is fundamentally wrong. Foam boards only "work" when no air circulates between them and the wall. For this, the surface of the facade wall must be flat, the glue on the slabs must be applied with a comb trowel over the entire area in horizontal stripes. In all other cases, the actual heat saving is no more than 10% of the calculated one; energy is lost due to air draft between the warm wall and the foam.
Have you identified a lot of houses where the foam on the facade walls was fixed in the way we described? Or, in the worst case, the glue was carefully applied with a trowel along the entire perimeter of the sheet without gaps and in several places in the middle? All other options are literally down the drain.
You can correct the situation with liquid foam. How is a facade wall insulated?
Step 1. Prepare materials and tools. In addition to a special unit, you will need an electric hammer drill and drills with victorious solders for the diameter of the filler tube.
On the front wall in a checkerboard pattern, drill holes in the seams between the bricks, the distance between them is about 1 meter. Foam will flow through the holes. Immediately prepare wooden pegs of the appropriate diameter to temporarily plug the holes while foaming the space between the walls.
Drilling holes in brick joints
Foam injection hole
Step 3. Prepare the liquid foam unit for operation.
Start filling the space with foam from the bottommost hole. Air pressure cannot exceed 5 atm. , otherwise, there are risks of cracks on the facade cladding. Due to the fact that the space between the walls is small, reduce the amount of material supplied. The specific values are determined in a practical way.
Do not rush to take on the whole house at once, set up operating modes in a small area, preferably on the back of the house.
Getting ready to fill
Step 4. You need to work with an assistant. One turns on / off the supply of liquid foam, and the second installs a branch pipe in the holes and monitors the filling of the space with foam. As soon as foam appears from a nearby hole, it is closed with a wooden wedge, the foam supply stops, the pipe is inserted into the adjacent hole.
Step 5. Always work from top to bottom. If foam does not appear in the adjacent hole for a long time, reduce the distance between them or slightly increase the pressure in the system.
Pouring liquid foam
Practical advice. Blow air from the compressors into the openings before filling the space with foam.
Check if it goes out everywhere, there are no dead zones. If you find such areas on the front wall, you need to drill new holes nearby and repeat the air test.
If the wall is not properly laid, then turn off the unit immediately when foam appears from the cracks in the masonry mortar. Drill the filling and control holes on these facades closer to each other.
Using this method, blow out all the front walls around the perimeter of the building with foam, close the control and filling holes with wedges.
Marking the inspection hole
Work from top to bottom
This completes the work on thermal insulation of the front walls with liquid foam. The next step is to remove the remaining foam. On the facade walls, prepared for finishing plastering or finishing with other materials, you should simply break off large pieces of frozen foam with your hands.
Uncured foam can be washed off immediately with water from a hose
If the facade wall is already finished with decorative facing bricks, then traces of foam should be remove with a clean damp cloth.
It is not difficult to do this, the work does not require a lot of time. After removing the foam, you will have to slightly clean the filler holes from the foam and seal them with a cement-sand mortar to match the color of the seams.
Difficult to find the same composition of the mixture - not a problem. Seal the holes with any solution, after it dries, paint the seams with a suitable color. This will take a little more time, but the appearance of the facade walls will completely change, mosses and mold will be removed from the seams.
And this in any case would have to be done, the personal home constantly requires care.
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