Quite rarely, plank floors are leveled with concrete. Experts believe that it is not very rational to burden a wooden covering with a heavy concrete slab. In addition, the base of wood and the layer of cement do not coexist so well, both during pouring and hardening, and during operation. Many professionals prefer other alignment schemes to pouring - dry. Nevertheless, there are a lot of people who want to make underfloor heating in a wooden house, or lay tiles in the kitchen and hallway - in such and similar cases, and the arrangement of a concrete screed on a wood base helps out.
Methods for this exist, and they have some characteristic features.
Wood is a special material with many wonderful qualities. But she also has a drawback, albeit small, but quite significant. The fact is that wood is not static, and even after processing and using products from it, they live according to their own special laws.
Changes in the state of the environment, such as fluctuations in temperature, humidity, contribute to its decrease or increase in volume, elongation, contraction and shrinkage in a linear dimension.
It is for this reason that after a wooden frame is installed, its finishing is not carried out until two years.
It is strictly forbidden to make a concrete screed on a fresh wooden floor: only after three to four years from the start of use, you can use this method. Even after two years of shrinkage, the wooden structural elements do not stop moving, however, they no longer do this so actively. Wood floors equipped with heating systems begin to move with each successive switching on and off.
Unlike products made of wood, an artificially created concrete monolith during the period of hydration slightly changes its dimensions in a linear direction.
Well, after the final solidification, the stone slab is absolutely static, showing no inclination to move at all. If these two different materials were in a rigid bond, then the instability of the natural material could cause a violation of the integrity of the concrete, the appearance of cracks in it. To ensure the autonomous operation of each system according to its qualities, without interfering with each other and without harming, a special technology for leveling the floor was invented. It is not connected to the walls and base.
What is is the essence of this technology? To make a concrete screed on a wooden floor, a boundary must be created between the monolithic cement slab and the movable wood base.
On the side of the walls of the room, its role will be played by a damper tape, and on the side of the floor of the room being equipped, a plastic film. Thus, a kind of floating flooring is obtained, which is not directly connected either with the base of the floor, or with the walls made of logs or beams.
What does this give us? The wooden component of the structure can move as it pleases, while the immobile screed will not crack and begin to crumble from changes in the configurations of the rough base.
A reasonable question arises: why a film made of polyethylene? It is not so favorable for the neighborhood with a rather capricious tree, it contributes to the appearance of fungus and mold. Moreover, in wooden buildings it is successfully replaced with roofing material, glassine, bituminous mastic or roll materials with impregnations.
It turns out that concrete does not stick to the polyethylene film at all.
Thanks to this feature:
Important precautions to be taken if you decide to tackle concrete floors in your home yourself. You will have to treat all wooden parts of the structure, even before starting work, with a special antiseptic and water-repellent primer "Aquastop". This way you can minimize the negative impact of polyethylene on wood and reliably protect the base.
We examined the principle of technology, now let's dwell on the progress of work and their sequence:
After that we wait for the sealant to set and freeze.
After that, carefully, without saving, we treat the surface of the wood with a water-repellent primer.
Mark the zero level on the walls, at a convenient height for you. It is determined using a laser device or an elementary level - a meter.
The height is freely selectable, it can be from 0.3 to 0.
7 m from the base of the dismantled coating. Equal segments are laid down from the line of the vertical level drawn on the wall, their size depends on the planned thickness of the future screed. It will be quite convenient to immediately mark the width of the floor covering on the wall. In this case, when the height is exceeded, it will be easier to immediately slightly reduce the thickness of the leveling layer.
What should you pay attention to? The standard capacity of a floating cement slab is five centimeters.
It should be remembered that a layer already one centimeter thick will press on one square of wooden covering weighing about 120 kg. Without proper reinforcement of the logs, their timber structure is unable to support such a mass. Lags must either be securely reinforced or (if possible) replaced with a metal channel.
The next steps in making the leveling screed are to construct isolation barriers that will be located between the planned leveling layer of the wooden floor base. The result of our actions should be a kind of pallet, the walls of which do not let water through.
When the finish coating is laid, the excess that comes out to the surface is cut off, and these places are covered with a plinth or his deputy.
What is extremely important? В the presence of holes, folds, cuts and holes is strictly not allowed for waterproofing. Work should be done carefully, trying not to pierce or tear the layer of waterproofing material. If, nevertheless, gaps have formed, they should be closed with patches from the same material.
It is best if the plastic wrap has no joints at all. If this does not work out, then all available joints, with indispensable overlaps, must be securely glued with tape.
Carefully sealed insulation will ensure the quality and reliability of the leveling layer.
This task requires special care and accuracy. Do not use metal nails and screws.
It is most convenient to form special beds over the entire equipable surface. They are made from the same solution, the same consistency and the same composition as the planned screed. A heavy strip of solution will prevent the film from bulging and wrinkling when the master walks, as it will be firmly pressed to the base.
The distance from the outermost bed to the wall should be approximately 20-30 cm. The distance between individual beds should be one meter or more.
This is necessary in order to level the screed was convenient, based on the rule of the beacons.
The metal profile is placed on the tops of the ridges made, and slightly sunk in the solution to the pre-marked height (leveling level).
It is advisable to carry out all the necessary measures for the installation of beacons within an hour after the start of the preparation of the cement mass, since later it will begin to set.
A thick cement pad, which is a screed, needs reinforcement. Most often, it is a metal mesh, just laid on the floor.
But above we have already noted the extreme importance of the integrity of the insulating film separating the cement mass and the wooden base. It is quite difficult to move along a rigid metal mesh lying on a polyethylene film, and not break the latter.
Let's also pay attention to the fact that the reinforcement is intended to strengthen not only the very bottom of the concrete layer.
It should be in the depth of the concrete mass, and in order to ensure such an arrangement, it is advisable to pour the cement not in one step, but at least in two or more steps:
Those who are aware of the performance characteristics of concrete probably have a good idea of how much each separate layer of such a screed dries.
You will have to wait at least 28 days between these two steps, which is almost a month, and the same amount will have to wait after the last layer is filled.
Is there a way to avoid such a long wait? Yes, there is such a method, but then instead of a metal mesh, it is better to use fiber fibers. In the process of preparing the concrete mixture, they are introduced into its composition, and their chaotically placed parts ensure good adhesion of the material in all directions. An additional plus - already heavy, the screed will be noticeably lightened, because the fiber weighs several times less than the reinforcement.
It is performed according to the usual, traditional scheme.
The course of work can go in different ways: it depends on the floor area of the room, and on its configuration.
What are the rules for taking care of a concrete screed in a private house? Approximately 24 hours after the end of pouring, the finished cement pad is well moistened. Then, for a week, it is moistened (sprayed) daily.
After four days, the coating made is closed with plastic wrap so that it is parted with moisture evenly. It is also recommended to ensure uniformity and stability of air humidity and room temperature.
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