How to make a monolithic floor with your own hands
The construction process of any houses or any other buildings will imply installation floors that are located in the attic or between floors. Quite often, wooden products are used to implement such a task. Elements made of natural wood are not difficult to make and install, but they have low thermal and sound insulation properties, and therefore they are much inferior to floors made of concrete.
For this reason, it is better to opt for the concrete option. In addition, making monolithic floors with your own hands is very simple.
Let's talk in more detail about a monolithic floor in a private house.
If we talk about the arrangement of the project that will be considered, it will be formed from a special reinforced concrete. It must be poured into the formwork, which will not deform in the future, and will not yet bend under loads. For the hand-made manufacture of the product, lumber, tools for fitting, cutting and assembling shields are required. After that, as the stripping is done, it can be used in the rafter type mechanism.
Equipment will be consumable, and communications will also be concreted. The most difficult will be the floor slabs in the basement - due to the huge number of input units of engineering mechanisms.
During application, the slabs of a solid view will be influenced by various types of loads:
If we talk about temporary, then their value will be directly related to the mass of utilities, flooring, ceiling cladding and pieces of furniture, as well as the number of people who are inside the premises.
In the second case, the transfer will be carried out by the mass of the building frame, internal partitions and the weight of the roof, which also receives additional mass from loads in the form of precipitation or wind. When the work on building the walls is completed in full, and the level is adjusted, you can independently equip the slab. The load that affects the product will be determined by the thickness of the reinforced concrete floor. For example, if the thickness is about 0.2 meters, then each square meter of surface can withstand up to 500 kg of payload.
If all calculations were performed correctly, then it will be possible to assess the load capacity of reinforced concrete slabs, taking into account the current operating conditions, and therefore prevent cracks from appearing.
The following aspects will affect the accuracy of calculations:
- Indicators of design load for each square meter of floor.
- Applied concrete grade.
- Reinforced concrete slab thickness.
It is also required to understand the fact that when designing reinforced concrete floors, a detailed plan must be drawn up, which is usually a drawing. When choosing the length of the span, it is important to correlate it with the slab thickness. Such a ratio should be approximately 30 to 1. But with an independent project implementation, it makes no sense to do something thicker than 0.4 meters, because the bearing capacity will increase, as well as the mass, and the static stress will also become higher.
For this reason, the permissible degree of load on do-it-yourself floors rarely exceeds 1.5-2 tons per square meter.
True, this situation can be corrected if we include I-beams in the supporting structure, which will lie on the flat surface of the concrete wall bearing masonry. There is another option, how you can raise the span while maintaining the free-type layout - to focus the structure as a whole on the columns. If the thickness is up to 0.
4 meters, and the span in 4 directions from the columns is 12 meters, then the cross-sectional area of the support will be from 1 to 1.35 meters. But this will only work if the cross-section of the reinforcement that was laid in the column is at least 1.5%.
For arranging a monolithic floor with reinforcement with your own hands, it should be noted that the issue of selecting a concrete mark for a homemade floor is very important.
The fact is that if you choose the wrong material, this can promise problems with strength, a decrease in the degree of resistance to stress, and so on. Because of this, the recommendations of professionals in this matter will definitely not be superfluous.
We suggest you consider what concrete brands exist at the moment.
- Concrete grade M100 is a real solution with the lowest quality and is usually used before casting monolith structures. As a rule, this option is used for pouring a foundation tape, forming a concrete cushion, installing a curb, and so on.
- Concrete grade M150 is used for screed, flooring, and also for arranging the foundation in buildings where there are a small number of floors.
- Concrete M250 will be an ideal solution for arranging a monolith of a strip base, as well as for floor slabs.
- M300 is used to form floor slabs, as well as concrete stairs.
- M350 is used to make various monolithic surfaces, pools and beams.
M400-M500 brands are practically not used in the construction of private facilities.
They are extremely popular when creating structures such as dams, dams, bridges and all kinds of hydraulic structures. If we draw conclusions from the described information, then it is best to use the M250-M350 brands for arranging a monolithic type overlap.
Next, we suggest talking about such a moment as formwork installation, because the slab slab device assumes that the concrete will be poured into the formwork, which is laid horizontally. This is usually called the deck. There are such options for arranging this type of structure:
The first option is much easier to apply, because the formwork will be disassembled, it has telescopic supports that are required to maintain it at the required level. If you make the formwork yourself, then you need to know that the plywood thickness should be 2 cm, and for edged boards 3 cm. When knocking down the structure, you need to adjust the elements as best as possible. If there are gaps between them, then the formwork surface must be covered with a waterproofing film.
Step-by-step instructions for installing the formwork:
Now more about reinforcement.
A monolithic floor in a house must go through a procedure such as reinforcement:
4 cm are used for this.
If the overlap is not the largest in area, then the dimensions of the cells can be increased to 20 cm.
5 meters. The rod joints must be staggered and the ends of the reinforced bars must be on the load-bearing beams.
As you can see, a reinforced belt is easy to make. This solution with profiled steel decking will significantly increase the strength of the floor.
It is important to buy concrete immediately at the factory where it is made, which will greatly facilitate the task.
Pouring the mortar from a mixer in an even layer will make it possible to ensure maximum product strength. The best option would be to pour concrete into a 20 cm layer without stopping. Prior to pouring concrete into the formwork structure, it is required to install a frame or box for technical holes. We are talking about the same chimney or ventilation duct. After pouring, it is required to vibrate with a special deep-view device.
Then leave the concrete to dry and gain strength for 1 month. During the first week, the surface needs to be moistened all the time, or rather, moistened. After 1 month it will be possible to dismantle the formwork and the slab will be ready. As you can see, pouring concrete is easy.
If we talk about caring for such a product, it is important to say that when it solidifies, enough heat will emanate, and this becomes the reason for an early evaporation of liquid.
Its minus will lead to deformation of the concrete coating, which is why at first the slab is constantly wetted with water. It must be poured either in buckets or through a hose with a special spray. Before that, a rag can be laid on the concrete and water can be poured. In hot weather, the concrete must be covered with polyethylene so that the slab does not start cracking. The formwork can be removed within 10 days after the extreme soaking.
Typically, the slab is able to gain strength in about 3-4 weeks. When the deadline is over, you can continue construction work. In the video presented, you will find the process of erecting a monolithic slab for overlapping with your own hands.
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