All currently existing masonry mixtures are a special type of building material that is widely used for masonry or wall cladding using individual elements, including different types of bricks. To make durable and high-quality masonry, it is necessary to take into account the characteristic features of the composition of different types of mixtures, properly prepare the working solution and observe the application technology.
Mortar for brickwork
High-quality masonry mixes - special complexes capable of forming a ready-to-use, durable, elastic, high-performance mortar with a water seal, suitable for construction or finishing work. The constituent parts of dry mixtures, as a rule, do not differ much, and are represented by:
If there is a need to obtain a brick masonry mixture that best matches the color scale with the masonry performed, a variety of natural dyes and pigments are used.
Characteristics and advantages of ready-made compositions for laying bricks
Key the task of the masonry mortar is to perform a connecting function between all elements of the structure being erected, and the choice of the mixture should be based on the mandatory consideration of the following principles:
Masonry mix: selection, cost
The type of binder included in the standard solution allows you to determine the type of hardening, which can be either hydraulic or air. If there is one binder component, then we have a simple mixture, represented by lime and cement compositions. The presence of several binders is a sign of a complex masonry mixture, which can have high plasticity and successfully resists cracking under the influence of negative external factors.
When ready-made is needed
masonry mix for bricks
To date, the initial parameters of the solution allow us to subdivide all masonry building and finishing mixtures into several basic types.
|Cement||High levels of strength and rigidity.||Private construction and erection of multi-storey buildings.|
|Cement-clay||The clay introduced into the solution should be thoroughly crushed and cleaned of impurities.||Low-rise and private construction.|
|Cement-limestone|| Sufficiently high rates of adhesion and good plasticity. |
|Laying of ceramic or silicate bricks.|
|Lime||Low strength, high brittleness and insignificant level of thermal conductivity.||Erection of low structures and low-rise buildings.| Cement and mixture bases
Colored masonry mixtures
Facing activities using bricks often involve the use of colored mixtures. Such compositions have certain advantages, and the standard composition includes fine-grained inorganic components in the form of lime or cement, water and colored fillers.
For a ready-made mixture, filling with a mineral dye based on iron oxide is characteristic. The total volume of dyes should not exceed 8% by weight of the entire solution. A high-quality color mixture can be represented by the following main components:
The use of color mixtures allows a harmonious combination of brick color with the coloring of the joints. When making it yourself, you need to remember that exclusively white cement is added to obtain light colors, and gray cements should be added to achieve a dark shade.
Colored mortar for brickwork
For the purpose of his own preparation of the simplest and most popular mortar for laying building bricks, you need to prepare:
Metal container for mixing building mixtures
The technology of preparation is simple and consists in adding cement to a small amount of filtered water and sand, stirring thoroughly and topping up the remaining water.The resulting mixture should be stirred for about three to four minutes. It is important to remember that the sand used to prepare the mixtures must be sieved, and large volumes of masonry require the use of a concrete mixer.
The composition, optimal in consistency, has a characteristic homogeneity and elasticity.
Work with silicate or ceramic bricks is carried out with cement-sand mortars.
Step-by-step calculation of the flow rate allows you to get the most accurate amount of solution with minimal errors. First, you need to calculate the area of the masonry, excluding the area of door and window openings, and then calculate the amount of mortar based on each cubic meter of area - a third of a cubic meter of the mixture.
For example: the task is to erect a one-story building, with a wall length of 15 m and a ceiling height of 3.4 m.
The presence of seven windows measuring 1.8 x 1.2 m and a pair of doorways 2.1 x 1.3 m.
An independent calculation of masonry with an outer thickness of 64 cm and an inner thickness of 25 cm will be as follows:
3 m) x 0.64 m;
As a rule, the following proportions are used when mixing:
For the preparation of the most common brands of mortar, the following proportions of sand and cement are recommended:
For example, to prepare M25, mix 2 tons of sifted sand, 0.26 tons of cement grade M400 and add 350 liters of water ...
The ratio can vary depending on many factors, including soil and climatic conditions and location of work. Clinker facing bricks need compositions with increased viscosity. It is possible to increase the strength of the lime mortar by means of ground slag. A properly prepared mixture spreads rather slowly.
Depending on the thickness of the brickwork, the standard rates for the consumption of working material may vary.
|Masonry thickness||Consumption rates|
|12 cm||30 kg||24 kg||18 kg|
|25 cm||78 kg||66 kg||54 kg|
|38 cm||126 kg||108 kg||90 kg|
Most often, M50, M75, M100, M125 brands are used for brickwork , M150 and M200.
|Proportions of cement, lime paste and seeded sand|
|M200||1.0: 0.3: 4.0|| 1. |
0: 0, 1: 2.5
|M300||1.0: 0 , 6: 6.0|| 1.0: 0. |
|1.0: 0.2: 3.5|| 1. |
0: 0.1: 2.5
|M400|| 1.0: 0.9: 8. |
|1.0: 0.5: 5.5|| 1.0: 0. |
|1.0: 0.2: 3.0|| 1. |
0: 0.1: 2.5
|M500||-|| 1.0: 0.8: 7. |
|1.0: 0.5: 5.5|| 1.0: 0. |
|1.0: 0.2: 3.0|
According to SP 82-101-98, when preparing mortars for brickwork, you need to focus on certain parameters.
A tabular example of obtaining a cubic meter of a working composition using a concrete mixer with a capacity of 200 liters.
|Brand||Masonry||Cement М400 kg||Sand, kg||Water, l||Number of mixes|
|M100||Hollow and solid bricks||28||134||18||12|
|M150||Hollow and solid brick||35||121||20||12|
|M200||Hollow and solid brick||42||112||22||12|
|M300||Hollow and solid bricks||49||102||23||12|
SP 82-101-98. Preparation and application of mortars of construction
To increase the strength, it is advisable to add a plasticizer, which saves about ten percent of cement. As a result, there is no delamination, and the composition becomes much easier to apply.
If there is a need to paint, then the pigments are preliminarily diluted in a small amount of warm water, and then added to the first portion of the composition for the concrete mixer.
In the same portion it is necessary to add standard additives represented by modifiers, plasticizers and hardeners. The correct ratio is always prescribed by the manufacturer of building materials on the packaging or in the attached instructions.
Technological processes and the principle are based on certain key parameters, including the thickness of the masonry:
Types of brickwork
Building ceramic blocks are installed on a layer of special solution or bed. The same mixture is used to fill the gaps or seams between the elements.
The standard aggregate thickness should not exceed one centimeter. Specialists in the field of finishing and construction work practice several types of laying elements, but the most common and simplest is the option of chain wall construction. The following masonry options can also be used:
Suture dressing scheme
Lightweight brickwork scheme
Types of masonry
The choice of the construction method depends on the height of the structure, its purpose, quality characteristics and dimensions of the building material.
In order to build quality walls or create aesthetic cladding, it is very important to ensure that you have a complete set of tools.
Basic tools for laying bricks
When working, you will need to use:
Trowel of the bricklayer
Device for determining the verticality of installation: plumb line
Intrinsically safe bricklayer's hammer (brick pickaxe)
If necessary, it is necessary to prepare in advance scaffolding or any devices that will allow you to safely and efficiently carry out all construction or finishing work at a sufficient height.
It is important to note that it is necessary to lay the elements, regardless of the parameters of the structure being built, from the corners, observing a simple technology.
Step 1. Take a couple of bricks and place them, observing a right angle, on the foundation base, checking the accuracy of the position with a construction triangle.
Step 2. Lay the next pair of elements, and then put two more on the resulting group of four bricks, which will allow the next row to overlap the previous row.
Half brick facing masonry
Half brick facing masonry
Step 3. Having taken the section out into three elements, you need to carry out the same work on the other corner, using the order and pulling the moorings, which will allow you to orient the rows strictly horizontally. The lacing should be approximately every 5 m, without sagging.
Laying corners using a single-row dressing
Single-row laying involves the erection of the beginning of the outer wall, and then the inner one, after which the zabutka is laid. The execution of multi-row masonry consists in the arrangement of blocks in a mixed or stepwise manner.
Today, in the conditions of modern brick construction, several effective methods of applying a working solution are used. When self-laying, it is enough to choose the most convenient option.
Raise the element previously laid on a dry surface with your left hand.
Step 2. Using the right hand, apply the mortar to the installation site and smooth it out with your fingers to the optimum thickness.
Step 3. With your left hand, lower the brick into the water and place a small amount of mortar on the side.
Applying the mortar
Step 4. Place the element on the "bed" and press down slowly moving forward and back, which contributes to a thin seam.
How to lay bricks
The procedure for back-to-back laying is as follows
Step 1. Place the element on a working solution spread over the surface.
Raising the rear part of the brick, lower its front side in such a way that forward movement will cause a set of the bonded edge of the mixture.
Step 3. With both hands, move and press the brick to the adjacent element, squeezing out the excess amount of mortar.
How to lay brick correctly
Bricklaying end-to-end with undercut
Step 1. Carefully but thoroughly moisten the brick in warm water.
Step 2. Apply a heap of mortar to a well-damp surface.
Step 3. Apply the mixture to the end part, then lay the brick and press it down, moving it back and forth with both hands.
Laying every third to fourth row must necessarily end with the filling of the seam space, which will make it possible to obtain more attractive seams, and also contributes to an increase in their resistance to temperature extremes.
Among other things, such an event is aimed at a kind of prevention of structural damage as a result of the negative effects of moisture. The only option when such a procedure can be neglected is finishing the wall with plaster.
It should be noted that it is necessary to control the quality of laying almost constantly, and every square meter of the erected surface must be checked for correctness of corner joints, vertical and horizontal indicators using a plumb line, a building level and a square. It is strictly forbidden to shift the laid elements after the solution has solidified.
Colored masonry mixture Osnovit BRICFORM MC11 gray
Thermal insulation masonry mixtures
If it is impossible to make a mortar on your own, you can use ready-made compositions from such well-proven manufacturers as Osnovit-Brikform, Knauf, PKF Stroybeton, Rusean, Vilis, PERFEKTA and DAUER.
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