Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

All currently existing masonry mixtures are a special type of building material that is widely used for masonry or wall cladding using individual elements, including different types of bricks. To make durable and high-quality masonry, it is necessary to take into account the characteristic features of the composition of different types of mixtures, properly prepare the working solution and observe the application technology.

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Mortar for brickwork

Standard composition

High-quality masonry mixes - special complexes capable of forming a ready-to-use, durable, elastic, high-performance mortar with a water seal, suitable for construction or finishing work. The constituent parts of dry mixtures, as a rule, do not differ much, and are represented by:

  • a binder, which can be both natural clay and cement;
  • the main component in the form fractional sand or expanded clay concrete;
  • with a solvent in the form of pure water;
  • various additional mineral components.

If there is a need to obtain a brick masonry mixture that best matches the color scale with the masonry performed, a variety of natural dyes and pigments are used.

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Characteristics and advantages of ready-made compositions for laying bricks

Selection principles

Key the task of the masonry mortar is to perform a connecting function between all elements of the structure being erected, and the choice of the mixture should be based on the mandatory consideration of the following principles:

  • the composition of the working solution for performing work in summer and winter has certain differences;
  • when choosing a mixture, it is necessary to take into account the location of the object, since underground and aboveground work is carried out using solutions of different composition;
  • clinker brick laying is carried out using a special working solution;
  • during the construction of furnaces or fireplace structures, the use of cement mortars must be excluded.

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Masonry mix: selection, cost

The type of binder included in the standard solution allows you to determine the type of hardening, which can be either hydraulic or air. If there is one binder component, then we have a simple mixture, represented by lime and cement compositions. The presence of several binders is a sign of a complex masonry mixture, which can have high plasticity and successfully resists cracking under the influence of negative external factors.

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

When ready-made is needed
masonry mix for bricks

Basic types

To date, the initial parameters of the solution allow us to subdivide all masonry building and finishing mixtures into several basic types.

View Features Application
Cement High levels of strength and rigidity. Private construction and erection of multi-storey buildings.
Cement-clay The clay introduced into the solution should be thoroughly crushed and cleaned of impurities. Low-rise and private construction.
Cement-limestone Sufficiently high rates of adhesion and good plasticity.

Laying of ceramic or silicate bricks.
Lime Low strength, high brittleness and insignificant level of thermal conductivity. Erection of low structures and low-rise buildings.

Prices for cement and mixture bases

Cement and mixture bases

Colored mixture

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Colored masonry mixtures

Facing activities using bricks often involve the use of colored mixtures. Such compositions have certain advantages, and the standard composition includes fine-grained inorganic components in the form of lime or cement, water and colored fillers.

For a ready-made mixture, filling with a mineral dye based on iron oxide is characteristic. The total volume of dyes should not exceed 8% by weight of the entire solution. A high-quality color mixture can be represented by the following main components:

  • cement grade M500, which reduces the release of salts and gives the masonry optimal strength;
  • fractional washed sand, eliminating the presence of clay and impurities;
  • mineral-type colored pigment components that provide sufficient resistance to unfavorable weather factors for long-term use and give an aesthetic appearance;
  • polymer additives that provide high strength and water resistance.

The use of color mixtures allows a harmonious combination of brick color with the coloring of the joints. When making it yourself, you need to remember that exclusively white cement is added to obtain light colors, and gray cements should be added to achieve a dark shade.

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Colored mortar for brickwork

Self-production of mixtures

For the purpose of his own preparation of the simplest and most popular mortar for laying building bricks, you need to prepare:

  • fine-mesh metal sieve;

    Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

    Construction sieve

  • shovel and bayonet;

    Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

    Shovel, bayonet

  • container for mixing the solution.

    Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

    Metal container for mixing building mixtures

The technology of preparation is simple and consists in adding cement to a small amount of filtered water and sand, stirring thoroughly and topping up the remaining water.The resulting mixture should be stirred for about three to four minutes. It is important to remember that the sand used to prepare the mixtures must be sieved, and large volumes of masonry require the use of a concrete mixer.

The composition, optimal in consistency, has a characteristic homogeneity and elasticity.

Work with silicate or ceramic bricks is carried out with cement-sand mortars.

Price for construction mixer

Construction mixer

Self-calculation of consumption

Step-by-step calculation of the flow rate allows you to get the most accurate amount of solution with minimal errors. First, you need to calculate the area of ​​the masonry, excluding the area of ​​door and window openings, and then calculate the amount of mortar based on each cubic meter of area - a third of a cubic meter of the mixture.

For example: the task is to erect a one-story building, with a wall length of 15 m and a ceiling height of 3.4 m.

The presence of seven windows measuring 1.8 x 1.2 m and a pair of doorways 2.1 x 1.3 m.

An independent calculation of masonry with an outer thickness of 64 cm and an inner thickness of 25 cm will be as follows:

  • determine the total volume of the outer walls: (4 walls x 15 mx 3.4 m - 7 windows x 1.8 mx 1.2 m - 2 doors x 2.1 mx 1.

    3 m) x 0.64 m;

  • determine the total volume of the internal walls : (42 mx 3.4 m - 5 x 2 x 1.3) x 0.25 m;
  • calculate the ratio of aggregates and binders 4: 1;
  • calculate the amount of cement.

As a rule, the following proportions are used when mixing:

  • one part of cement;
  • three parts of seeded sand;
  • 1 / 2 parts water.

For the preparation of the most common brands of mortar, the following proportions of sand and cement are recommended:

  • 5: 1 for the manufacture of grade M25;
  • 4: 1 for manufacture grade M50;
  • 3: 1 for the manufacture of grade M75;

For example, to prepare M25, mix 2 tons of sifted sand, 0.26 tons of cement grade M400 and add 350 liters of water ...

The ratio can vary depending on many factors, including soil and climatic conditions and location of work. Clinker facing bricks need compositions with increased viscosity. It is possible to increase the strength of the lime mortar by means of ground slag. A properly prepared mixture spreads rather slowly.

Consumption rates

Depending on the thickness of the brickwork, the standard rates for the consumption of working material may vary.

Masonry thickness Consumption rates

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Single brick

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

One-and-a-half brick

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Double brick

12 cm 30 kg 24 kg 18 kg
25 cm 78 kg 66 kg 54 kg
38 cm 126 kg 108 kg 90 kg

Tips on composition

Most often, M50, M75, M100, M125 brands are used for brickwork , M150 and M200.

Proportions of cement, lime paste and seeded sand
Solution grade M50 M75 M100 M150 M200
M200 1.0: 0.3: 4.0 1.

0: 0, 1: 2.5

- - -
M300 1.0: 0 , 6: 6.0 1.0: 0.

3: 4.0

1.0: 0.2: 3.5 1.

0: 0.1: 2.5

-
M400 1.0: 0.9: 8.

0

1.0: 0.5: 5.5 1.0: 0.

4: 4.5

1.0: 0.2: 3.0 1.

0: 0.1: 2.5

M500 - 1.0: 0.8: 7.

0

1.0: 0.5: 5.5 1.0: 0.

3: 4.0

1.0: 0.2: 3.0

According to SP 82-101-98, when preparing mortars for brickwork, you need to focus on certain parameters.

A tabular example of obtaining a cubic meter of a working composition using a concrete mixer with a capacity of 200 liters.

Brand Masonry Cement М400 kg Sand, kg Water, l Number of mixes
M100 Hollow and solid bricks 28 134 18 12
M150 Hollow and solid brick 35 121 20 12
M200 Hollow and solid brick 42 112 22 12
M300 Hollow and solid bricks 49 102 23 12

SP 82-101-98. Preparation and application of mortars of construction

SP 82-101-98

To increase the strength, it is advisable to add a plasticizer, which saves about ten percent of cement. As a result, there is no delamination, and the composition becomes much easier to apply.

If there is a need to paint, then the pigments are preliminarily diluted in a small amount of warm water, and then added to the first portion of the composition for the concrete mixer.

In the same portion it is necessary to add standard additives represented by modifiers, plasticizers and hardeners. The correct ratio is always prescribed by the manufacturer of building materials on the packaging or in the attached instructions.

Features of traditional masonry

Technological processes and the principle are based on certain key parameters, including the thickness of the masonry:

  • in half a brick - the thickness is 12 cm;
  • in one brick - the thickness is 25-26 cm;
  • in one and a half bricks - the thickness is 38 cm;
  • in two bricks - the thickness is 58 cm;
  • in two and a half - the thickness is 64 cm.

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Types of brickwork

Building ceramic blocks are installed on a layer of special solution or bed. The same mixture is used to fill the gaps or seams between the elements.

The standard aggregate thickness should not exceed one centimeter. Specialists in the field of finishing and construction work practice several types of laying elements, but the most common and simplest is the option of chain wall construction. The following masonry options can also be used:

  • solid;
  • with four-row dressing of seams;
  • with an air gap;
  • well.

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Suture dressing scheme

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Well masonry

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Lightweight brickwork scheme

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Types of masonry

The choice of the construction method depends on the height of the structure, its purpose, quality characteristics and dimensions of the building material.

Tools Used

In order to build quality walls or create aesthetic cladding, it is very important to ensure that you have a complete set of tools.

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Basic tools for laying bricks

When working, you will need to use:

  • a trowel or plastering trowel , allowing to apply and level the working composition between the laid brick blocks;

    Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

    Trowel of the bricklayer

  • plumb line, contributing to the observance of the verticality of the erected walls;

    Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

    Device for determining the verticality of installation: plumb line

  • a hammer-pick for splitting or leveling individual masonry elements;

    Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

    Intrinsically safe bricklayer's hammer (brick pickaxe)

  • building level;
  • order, allowing control of the height;

    Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

    Ordering

  • Joining for the joint space;

    Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

    Joining

  • lacing, helping to control the horizontal;
  • construction tape.

If necessary, it is necessary to prepare in advance scaffolding or any devices that will allow you to safely and efficiently carry out all construction or finishing work at a sufficient height.

Prices for building levels

Building levels

Step-by-step instructions

It is important to note that it is necessary to lay the elements, regardless of the parameters of the structure being built, from the corners, observing a simple technology.

Step 1. Take a couple of bricks and place them, observing a right angle, on the foundation base, checking the accuracy of the position with a construction triangle.

Step 2. Lay the next pair of elements, and then put two more on the resulting group of four bricks, which will allow the next row to overlap the previous row.

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Half brick facing masonry

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Half brick facing masonry

Step 3. Having taken the section out into three elements, you need to carry out the same work on the other corner, using the order and pulling the moorings, which will allow you to orient the rows strictly horizontally. The lacing should be approximately every 5 m, without sagging.

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Laying corners using a single-row dressing

Single-row laying involves the erection of the beginning of the outer wall, and then the inner one, after which the zabutka is laid. The execution of multi-row masonry consists in the arrangement of blocks in a mixed or stepwise manner.

Rules for applying mortar

Today, in the conditions of modern brick construction, several effective methods of applying a working solution are used. When self-laying, it is enough to choose the most convenient option.

First method

Step 1.

Raise the element previously laid on a dry surface with your left hand.

Step 2. Using the right hand, apply the mortar to the installation site and smooth it out with your fingers to the optimum thickness.

Step 3. With your left hand, lower the brick into the water and place a small amount of mortar on the side.

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Applying the mortar

Step 4. Place the element on the "bed" and press down slowly moving forward and back, which contributes to a thin seam.

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

How to lay bricks

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

The procedure for back-to-back laying is as follows

Second method

Step 1. Place the element on a working solution spread over the surface.

Step 2.

Raising the rear part of the brick, lower its front side in such a way that forward movement will cause a set of the bonded edge of the mixture.

Step 3. With both hands, move and press the brick to the adjacent element, squeezing out the excess amount of mortar.

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

How to lay brick correctly

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Bricklaying end-to-end with undercut

The third method

Step 1. Carefully but thoroughly moisten the brick in warm water.

Step 2. Apply a heap of mortar to a well-damp surface.

Step 3. Apply the mixture to the end part, then lay the brick and press it down, moving it back and forth with both hands.

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Building walls

Tips and tricks

Laying every third to fourth row must necessarily end with the filling of the seam space, which will make it possible to obtain more attractive seams, and also contributes to an increase in their resistance to temperature extremes.

Among other things, such an event is aimed at a kind of prevention of structural damage as a result of the negative effects of moisture. The only option when such a procedure can be neglected is finishing the wall with plaster.

It should be noted that it is necessary to control the quality of laying almost constantly, and every square meter of the erected surface must be checked for correctness of corner joints, vertical and horizontal indicators using a plumb line, a building level and a square. It is strictly forbidden to shift the laid elements after the solution has solidified.

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Colored masonry mixture Osnovit BRICFORM MC11 gray

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Thermal insulation masonry mixtures

If it is impossible to make a mortar on your own, you can use ready-made compositions from such well-proven manufacturers as Osnovit-Brikform, Knauf, PKF Stroybeton, Rusean, Vilis, PERFEKTA and DAUER.

Masonry mix for bricks: selection, preparation, application technology

Mortar for laying domestic bricks Quick-mix LHM

Video - Masonry mortar for bricks

Video - Bricklaying with colored mortar

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