Masonry mortar is very important in construction. Even if the brickwork itself is made very high quality, but the mortar was prepared incorrectly, then the building will not stand for a long time.
Masonry mortar for bricks
If the masonry mortar is made in accordance with all instructions and high quality materials were used, then the building will stand for a very long time. An example is any Orthodox church that was built a thousand years ago, but still stands and is used for services. Proceeding from this, it is obvious that it is by no means possible to allow changes in the proportions of components, steps in the manufacturing technique, or something else, since the consequences will be the most unpleasant.
Example of brickwork layout
Several basic requirements are put forward for the masonry mortar, which it must meet.
It is important that the solution is viscous for a long time
It is also necessary to ensure the rigidity of the hardened mortar.
The mortar should also have good adhesion
Preparation of cement mortar
Building solutions. General technical conditions. Download file (click on the link to open the PDF file in a new window).
Download file (click on the link to open the PDF file in a new window).
Each solution contains three main components, while their proportions vary. The mixture consists of a filler, water and a binder. There are three main types of binders, by which the type of solution is determined. The first is cement, the second is lime and the third is cement and lime together.
Sand is usually used as a filler, while it is important that the fractions of sand grains are small (no more than 2 mm in diameter). The filler must be chosen sufficiently clean, without impurities and additives. Before you start preparing the solution, you need to separately prepare the sand, which is sifted without fail in order to prevent the formation of lumps. Also, do not buy yellow sand - this color indicates an increased amount of additives, and the resulting mixture will not have the best characteristics.
Some types of sand
Note! In addition to sand, you can also use clay - in this case, the solution will be very plastic, but it is not suitable for every masonry, for example, you cannot use such a mixture with hollow bricks, as it will penetrate into its cavities, and this will cause problems with the thermal insulation of the finished structure .
Today, dry mix for masonry mortar can be bought without problems at any hardware store. It will only be necessary to fill in the water (the required amount is always written on the package), mix and then the solution is ready for use. It is worth starting construction work after the mixture has stood for about 10 minutes in finished form.
Masonry mixture for bricks
Types of masonry color mixtures
If you need a small amount of mortar, then you can get by with a construction mixer and a bucket or other container. If a large volume of the composition is required, it is more rational to prepare it in a concrete mixer, while it is important to wash it well, since if the particles that remained in it from previous manipulations fall into the masonry mortar, there will be a risk of deteriorating the quality of the mixture and reducing the service life of the building.
Preparation of cement mortar for laying bricks
To determine how ready the mortar is, you need to move the top layer with a spatula. If the mixture bursts and the characteristic wavy structure remains, then too little water has been added. If, on the contrary, the solution floats, then there was an excess of water and it is necessary to add the dry component.
The ideal mixture should hold its shape well, not tear, and leave a uniform surface after running over it with a spatula.
Determination of the readiness of the mortar for brickwork
During the preparation of the mixture, you need to pay attention to the fact that the indicators of plasticity and strength do not depend only from the ingredients and the correctness of their addition, but also from the material from which the masonry is created. Porous materials have the ability to "suck" water out of the mixture due to capillary forces, as a result, the solution after hardening will be incredibly strong. In the opposite situation, too much water may remain in the masonry mortar, and when it hardens, the strength indicators will not be enough to ensure the long-term existence of the building.
Note! Water also has its own requirements: it must be clean, ideally distilled, contain as little impurities as possible and be in a temperature range of + 15-20 degrees.
For 1 part of cement, 0.8 parts of water is usually added - this proportion is considered the most optimal. Adding just this amount of water is very important, since this is one of the main factors affecting the quality of the finished solution.
Before purchasing components for preparing a mixture, you need to calculate the required amount of mortar - it will depend on the type of brick used and the thickness of the wall being built.
At professional builders who often lay brick, this type of mixture is the most popular and is used in most cases due to its simple preparation technique.
Depending on the technological properties, you can create three types of mortar for masonry.
Table. Types of masonry mortar according to technological properties.
|Type of composition||Properties|
| Such mixtures contain a little astringent component, they are not very plastic and strong, as a result, there is a great risk of cracking after the solution hardens, however, they are quite cheap.
| Characterized by an excess of the norm binder.
They are distinguished by high indicators of strength and plasticity, but they are prone to shrinkage during hardening, and subsequently often crack.
| If you use the required proportions when preparing the mixture, then all the positive characteristics will be preserved and at the same time there will be no unpleasant consequences that reduce the service life of the structure. Such a solution is quite thick, does not contain lumps and does not tear if you run a spatula over it.
The choice of cement for the preparation of a solution must be approached especially seriously. The brand of cement used to create the mix is very important.
The higher it is, the less amount of the binder will need to be used. A dark shade of the mortar can be given by using a high grade of cement (above M500) or by adding graphite, soot. In any case, it is necessary to strictly follow the proportions indicated on the cement packaging.
Grades of cement slurry
To change the plasticity of the slurry, which will turn out, you can introduce plasticizers. Usually these are special surfactants, but folk remedies can be used to reduce the cost of preparation.
Household chemicals such as shampoo or dish detergent are excellent plasticizers. It is best not to use a powder detergent, as it may crack after a while.
Cement and mixture bases
Step 1. The first step is to prepare all the components that are needed. Clean water with a temperature of + 15-20 degrees, sifted sand without impurities and cement.
We will consider the process of preparing a solution of grade M75 using cement grade M500.
Proportions of cement-sand mortar
Step 2. It is necessary to pour 20 liters of water into the prepared and washed concrete mixer.
Step 3. Add 3 shovels of sand (preferably with a handful) to the water in the concrete mixer.
You can fall asleep in any way - from a bucket or directly from a shovel.
Sand is poured
Step 4. Next, you need to add cement M500. It needs 1 shovel - the same as for sand.
Cement is poured
After all the ingredients are poured into the concrete mixer, it must be turned on ... Working time - 3-5 minutes, during which the mixture will be completely mixed.
Next, it remains to pour the prepared solution into a bucket or other container.
Ready mortar is poured
Lime-based solutions are inferior to their counterparts made with the addition of cement in terms of strength. To create a lime mixture, quicklime or ground lime is used, lime paste is also suitable. In order not to form lumps, it is worth using a sieve with 1x1 cm cells. If the cells are larger, they will let small lumps of substance pass through, and with smaller ones it is difficult to work because of their tendency to clog.
Scheme for slaking quicklime
Important! Lime is mixed with water and sand until a homogeneous mixture with high plasticity is obtained.
Lime-based mortars have not very high strength characteristics, for this reason they are rarely used to create brick building structures. Most often, such a mixture is relevant for the construction of stoves, chimneys and fireplaces, since the lime mortar perfectly withstands temperature changes, while other varieties are prone to cracking under such conditions.
How to lay bricks correctly
Now, despite all modern construction technologies, a person who knows how to quickly and correctly lay bricks is highly valued ..
.So why don't you join the skill of masons? Knowing , how to lay bricks correctly, you will be able to independently build various residential and outbuildings from this material on your site.
In order to prepare this type of solution, use water, sand, cement and lime. Thanks to the last ingredient, the finished mortar is more plastic, and also has greater strength than lime. In this composition, the most optimal combination of properties, therefore, this type of mixture is often used in professional construction.
When erecting plinths and foundations, this type of mortar is used everywhere.
Preparation of cement-lime mortar - table
We will make M100 grade mortar using M400 cement. This will require 10 kg of cement, 50 kg of sand, 0.5 kg of lime and 50 liters of water.
As with any solution, you must first prepare the required components. The water must be clean, with a temperature of + 15-20 degrees, the sand must be sieved. Cement does not need additional processing before use.
Step 2. Next, 2/3 of the estimated amount of water must be poured into the concrete mixer, in our case - 30 liters.
You can use a hose, you can use a bucket.
Fill in water
Step 3. Now you need to fill in 10 kg of cement and 5 kg of lime. Next, you need to mix these ingredients for a couple of minutes.
Pour in the cement
Now the filler should be added to the solution, that is, sand, and top up the rest of the water. Sand is required 50 kg, water - 20 liters.
We fill in the sand
Step 5. At this stage, stir the solution for 5 minutes to achieve homogeneous consistency of the mixture.
The solution is ready, you need to pour it into a bucket or other prepared container.
Pour out the solution
It is not difficult to make a solution with your own hands, you just need to determine for yourself what mixture is necessary for your purposes, right calculate proportions and strictly adhere to them.
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