Outside insulation gives a much better effect than insulating a house from the inside. In addition to the main functions, the insulation protects the walls from precipitation, mechanical damage, weathering and thereby prolongs the service life of the entire building. Installation of insulation does not require special knowledge or skills, and most homeowners easily cope with this task on their own. But in order to do everything as efficiently as possible, you need to know what materials are available for insulating walls from the outside, and how to fix them correctly.
Materials for wall insulation outside
Wall insulation outside
Despite the fact that the operating conditions outside and inside the house are strikingly different, in both cases the same can be used materials.
However, when choosing a heater, preference should be given to those options that best meet the following requirements:
Examples of insulation of walls made of brick and concrete
For wooden houses, the vapor transmission capacity of the insulation is also important, because wooden walls must "breathe". As a rule, finishing coatings for facades are designed for long-term operation, and it is too troublesome and not always advisable to remove them every few years to replace worn-out thermal insulation. At the same time, if the insulation under the finish is compressed, cracked, starts to rot or mice gnaw it, it will no longer be able to retain heat, which means that it will not be possible to do without repairs. That is why it is so important that the selected material fully meets the specified criteria.
Thermal insulation of a wooden house, scheme
At the moment the construction market offers the following materials for insulating houses:
Insulation of a house outside with mineral wool
Wall insulation with foam
Thermal insulation with polyurethane foam
All of them differ in technical characteristics, installation technology, have different service life. Moreover, each of them is suitable for outdoor use and has its own advantages. Let's consider these materials in more detail.
Mineral wool is made from fine fibers, obtained by melting and spraying glass, blast furnace slag or rocks.
Depending on the location of the fibers, the structure of the insulation can be corrugated, vertically layered and horizontally layered, have a different density and thickness. Each type of mineral wool has its own characteristics:
Mineral wool is produced in slabs and mats with various coating options - kraft paper, aluminum foil , fiberglass.
Basalt insulation is the most expensive in terms of cost, and the higher its density, the more expensive it is.
Thermal insulation with foil
Advantages of mineral wool:
Mineral wool in slabs
When laying mineral wool, it is worth using gloves
Popular brands of mineral wool.
|Basalt insulation with increased rigidity, produced in the form of plates with a thickness of 25 to 180 mm.Suitable for all types of facades, can be used as a base for plastering. Differs in resistance to deformation and shrinkage, water resistance, low thermal conductivity, absolutely non-flammable. Fastening with dowels and glue|
| Variety glass wool with various additives that improve the characteristics of the insulation. |
It is produced in slabs and rolls, there are options with a foil coating. It is widely used for warming all types of facades, frame structures, internal partitions, roofing systems
|Formaldehyde-free fiberglass insulation. Produced in plates and rolls, it is distinguished by biological and chemical resistance, elasticity, good vapor permeability. Material thickness - from 5 to 10 cm|
| Glass wool insulation with a high content of water repellents. It is produced in the form of rolls, mats, rigid and semi-rigid plates, 50-100 mm thick. |
Suitable for all types of surfaces, ventilated facades, frame structures
Extruded polystyrene foam for insulation of facade walls
Heaters based on expanded polystyrene are excellent heat insulators due to their closed cell structure. Almost 98% of the material is air or an inert gas, enclosed in sealed cells, so the insulation weighs very little. Both polystyrene and extruded polystyrene foam practically do not absorb moisture, which means they are excellent for warming foundations, plinths, basements. When insulating facades, these materials serve as the basis for applying plaster.
Wet facade on polystyrene
In addition, such thermal insulation does not exert a large load on the base, which means that there is no need for additional reinforcement of the supporting structures;
Technical characteristics of extruded polystyrene foam boards
Expanded polystyrene "Technoplex"
In the domestic market, domestic-made EPSPs - "Penoplex" and "Tepleks" are in great demand ", as well as expanded polystyrene insulation of the brands Ursa, GREENPLEX, PRIMAPLEX.
Extruded expanded polystyrene Primaplex-35
Extruded expanded polystyrene Greenplex
Cellulose insulation, which is also called ecowool, is made from waste paper and waste paper.
Ecowool is 80% cellulose fibers, the remaining 20% are antiseptics and fire retardants. The material is densely packed into all irregularities and voids and forms a dense seamless coating with high vapor permeability. Installation of insulation is carried out in two ways - dry and wet-glue, and both options can be done either manually or using a special installation.
Technical characteristics of ecowool
The dry method allows you to perform thermal insulation in a short time and immediately start finishing. But at the same time, the density of the coating will not be high enough, which will lead to shrinkage and the appearance of cold bridges.
In addition, during dry blowing, a large amount of fine dust is formed and you have to work in a respirator.
Thermal insulation with ecowool
The wet-glue method ensures better adhesion of the insulation to the base, the layer is much denser and more resistant to shrinkage, which guarantees the durability of thermal insulation. True, it takes time for the material to dry - from 2 to 3 days, and even more in cold or damp weather. And until the layer is completely dry, you cannot start finishing.
Wet method of applying ecowool
Insulation of facades with polyurethane foam
Polyurethane foam, or PPU , belongs to the new generation of heaters and has improved characteristics compared to traditional materials. It is a liquid polymer mixture that, after being applied to the surface, hardens and forms a tough cellular coating. The components are mixed immediately before starting work, and the finished solution is applied by spraying using a special installation.
Polyurethane foam application
Characteristics of polyurethane foam and mineral wool
Densities of polyurethane foam
Facade insulation can be performed in different ways, depending on the type of insulation. But for all options, a high-quality preparation of the base is a prerequisite, because not a single insulation can stop the processes of destruction of wall materials. Consider the methods of insulation with mineral wool and polystyrene foam plates, as the most popular in frequent construction.
Exterior walls are cleaned of dirt, peeling plaster or paint.
Cracks and problem areas are repaired, the places affected by the fungus must be treated. Small irregularities do not need to be eliminated - mineral wool insulation is mounted using a frame, so all defects will disappear inside. Finally, the walls are covered with a waterproof primer with antiseptic properties so that mold does not develop under the thermal insulation layer.
Step 1. The bars for the frame are cut to the required length, treated with antiseptic impregnation on all sides and dried in air.
Tip. The cross-section of the beams should be selected taking into account the thickness of the thermal insulation layer. That is, if slabs with a thickness of 50 mm are stacked in one row, the thickness of the frame should be 5-6 cm, with two-layer laying - at least 11 cm.In the first case, a bar with a section of 50x50 mm is suitable for the racks, in the second - a board of 40x110 mm, installed on the edge.
On the walls, markings are made for the frame guides strictly according to the level, holes are drilled for fasteners and beams are installed. The distance between the posts should be 10-15 mm less than the width of the insulation plate. During the installation process, the location of the elements is controlled by the building level; if necessary, wooden linings are used under the timber so that all the racks are in the same plane.
The step of the sheathing corresponds to the width of the insulation
Step 3 . Insulation is inserted into the cells of the frame.
To do this, the plates are slightly squeezed along the edges, squeezed between the posts and released. The material spreads out on its own and fills the space tightly. The insulation must be inserted so that there are no gaps between the plates.
Unpacking mineral wool
Cutting mineral wool
Laying mineral wool slabs in two layers
Step 4. After filling all the cells from above, the insulation must be covered with a windproof moisture-proof membrane.
The membrane is laid with the marked side out, the canvases are arranged horizontally, starting from the bottom. A construction stapler is used to fix the membrane. The top sheet is laid with an overlap of 8-10 cm, and it is recommended to glue the joints with tape.
Step 5 . On top of the membrane, wooden slats of counter-lattice 30-40 mm thick are stuffed to ensure an air gap.
If this is not done, condensation will accumulate on the insulation, moisture will saturate the wooden frame and the structure will quickly become unusable.
Fastening the counter battens
After that, all that remains is to mount the topcoat, for example, siding or corrugated board. The finish must completely cover the thermal insulation layer so that no precipitation falls on the plates. Only under such conditions will the material last a long time and effectively.
The last step - decorative finishing of the facade
This method of insulation noticeably different from the previous one.
First, the base must be leveled so that the material adheres tightly to the surface. Secondly, the installation is carried out without lathing, the plates are fixed with glue and dowels-fungi.
Step 1. Prepared walls are covered with a primer with quartz sand, for example, Betokontakt. If the substrate is porous, the primer is applied in 2 layers.
Step 2. Determine the lower boundary of the thermal insulation and draw a horizontal line around the perimeter of the house. Drill holes for dowels according to the marking with a step of 20-30 cm and fix the starting bar.
The bar is fixed with dowels
The starting bar is fixed
Step 3. Special glue is required to fix the insulation.
It is possible to use assembly adhesive in cylinders, for example, TYTAN STYRO 753, or dry adhesive mixture (Ceresit CT 83).The mixture is diluted in clean water according to the manufacturer's instructions, mixed until homogeneous with a mixer at low speed.
Preparation of glue for foam
Take the first sheet, apply the glue from the back side in a continuous strip around the perimeter and in the center. Next, they apply insulation to the wall, resting the lower edge on the starting profile, check the location with a level, press firmly against the base.
Fix the entire row, tightly joining the sheets together. The next row starts with half of the sheet to offset the vertical seams. Excess glue protruding at the joints is carefully removed with a spatula.
Installing foam plates
Filling the gaps with foam
Step 5. When the adhesive has cured, each sheet must be secured with disc dowels.
To do this, carefully drill holes in the wall through the insulation, insert the dowels and carefully hammer them in with a hammer. One sheet requires 5 fasteners - in each corner and in the center.
Fixing the slabs with dowels
Step 6. Next, knead the glue solution, apply a continuous layer on the insulation, a fiberglass reinforcing mesh is placed on top and immersed in the solution. Openings and corners are additionally reinforced with corner profiles.
In the photo, fastening corners and reinforcing openings before plastering
When the solution is dry, the surface is sanded, dedusted and plastered with a thin layer. Now all that remains is to paint the facade or apply decorative plaster.
Painting applied decorative plaster
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Posted By: Work Style |10, Nov 2020