Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Outside insulation gives a much better effect than insulating a house from the inside. In addition to the main functions, the insulation protects the walls from precipitation, mechanical damage, weathering and thereby prolongs the service life of the entire building. Installation of insulation does not require special knowledge or skills, and most homeowners easily cope with this task on their own. But in order to do everything as efficiently as possible, you need to know what materials are available for insulating walls from the outside, and how to fix them correctly.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Materials for wall insulation outside

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Wall insulation outside

Requirements for outdoor insulation

Despite the fact that the operating conditions outside and inside the house are strikingly different, in both cases the same can be used materials.

However, when choosing a heater, preference should be given to those options that best meet the following requirements:

  • increased resistance to shrinkage;
  • resistance to mechanical damage;
  • UV resistance;
  • durability;
  • ease of installation;
  • resistance to insects and microorganisms.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Examples of insulation of walls made of brick and concrete

For wooden houses, the vapor transmission capacity of the insulation is also important, because wooden walls must "breathe". As a rule, finishing coatings for facades are designed for long-term operation, and it is too troublesome and not always advisable to remove them every few years to replace worn-out thermal insulation. At the same time, if the insulation under the finish is compressed, cracked, starts to rot or mice gnaw it, it will no longer be able to retain heat, which means that it will not be possible to do without repairs. That is why it is so important that the selected material fully meets the specified criteria.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Thermal insulation of a wooden house, scheme

Types of thermal insulation materials

At the moment the construction market offers the following materials for insulating houses:

  • mineral wool in slabs and rolls;

    Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

    Insulation of a house outside with mineral wool

  • expanded polystyrene plates (foam and EPS);

    Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

    Wall insulation with foam

  • cellulose insulation;

    Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

    Cellulose insulation

  • polyurethane foam.

    Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

    Thermal insulation with polyurethane foam

All of them differ in technical characteristics, installation technology, have different service life. Moreover, each of them is suitable for outdoor use and has its own advantages. Let's consider these materials in more detail.

Mineral wool

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Mineral wool

Mineral wool is made from fine fibers, obtained by melting and spraying glass, blast furnace slag or rocks.

Depending on the location of the fibers, the structure of the insulation can be corrugated, vertically layered and horizontally layered, have a different density and thickness. Each type of mineral wool has its own characteristics:

  • glass wool is characterized by increased chemical resistance, withstands heating up to 500 degrees. In addition to glass fibers, it contains impurities of limestone, soda, dolomite;
  • stone wool is produced most often from igneous basalt rocks. It is tougher and more dense, withstands heating up to 600 degrees;

    Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

    Rock wool

  • slag wool, made from melts of metallurgical waste, withstands heating up to 300 degrees and is very hygroscopic.

    Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

    Slag wool

Mineral wool is produced in slabs and mats with various coating options - kraft paper, aluminum foil , fiberglass.

Basalt insulation is the most expensive in terms of cost, and the higher its density, the more expensive it is.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Thermal insulation with foil

Advantages of mineral wool:

  • fine-fiber structure facilitates free air passage and water vapor, so the risk of condensation on the insulated surface is minimal;
  • due to the mineral base, the material is not subject to combustion, which means it is an additional protection of walls from fire;
  • the insulation has a relatively high moisture resistance, and therefore effectively prevents the penetration of dampness into the house;
  • mineral wool perfectly absorbs sounds and vibrations, and street noise almost does not penetrate into the insulated room;
  • the insulation is lightweight, easy to process, thanks to elasticity it quickly restores its shape after crushing during installation;
  • microorganisms, insects do not develop in mineral wool, rodents do not like it.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Mineral wool in slabs

Disadvantages:

  • mineral wool tends to shrink , and the lower the density of the material, the faster the deformations occur. Rigid basalt slabs are the least susceptible to shrinkage, but due to the high cost, not everyone can afford such thermal insulation;
  • with prolonged wetting, the insulation is saturated with moisture and loses its thermal insulation qualities;
  • microscopic fibers are easily destroyed when squeezed and cutting the material, and then settles on the skin, causing irritation, can get into the eyes and lungs. Glass wool is considered the most dangerous in this regard, but with other types of mineral wool, at least gloves and a respirator should be used.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

When laying mineral wool, it is worth using gloves

Popular brands of mineral wool.

Name Brief characteristics

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

ROCKWOOL

Basalt insulation with increased rigidity, produced in the form of plates with a thickness of 25 to 180 mm.Suitable for all types of facades, can be used as a base for plastering. Differs in resistance to deformation and shrinkage, water resistance, low thermal conductivity, absolutely non-flammable. Fastening with dowels and glue

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

URSA GEO

Variety glass wool with various additives that improve the characteristics of the insulation.

It is produced in slabs and rolls, there are options with a foil coating. It is widely used for warming all types of facades, frame structures, internal partitions, roofing systems

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Knauf

Formaldehyde-free fiberglass insulation. Produced in plates and rolls, it is distinguished by biological and chemical resistance, elasticity, good vapor permeability. Material thickness - from 5 to 10 cm

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Isover

Glass wool insulation with a high content of water repellents. It is produced in the form of rolls, mats, rigid and semi-rigid plates, 50-100 mm thick.

Suitable for all types of surfaces, ventilated facades, frame structures

Prices for mineral wool

Mineral wool

Styrofoam and EPS

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Extruded polystyrene foam for insulation of facade walls

Heaters based on expanded polystyrene are excellent heat insulators due to their closed cell structure. Almost 98% of the material is air or an inert gas, enclosed in sealed cells, so the insulation weighs very little. Both polystyrene and extruded polystyrene foam practically do not absorb moisture, which means they are excellent for warming foundations, plinths, basements. When insulating facades, these materials serve as the basis for applying plaster.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Wet facade on polystyrene

Advantages:

  • Styrofoam insulation is lightweight and easy to process during the editing process, so a beginner can cope with this.

    In addition, such thermal insulation does not exert a large load on the base, which means that there is no need for additional reinforcement of the supporting structures;

  • microorganisms cannot develop in expanded polystyrene, therefore fungi and mold are not afraid of the insulation;
  • with proper installation, these materials serve for a long time, especially EPS - up to 50 years;
  • foam and EPS are resistant to soap and salt solutions, alkalis, bleach and other chemically aggressive substances;
  • installation does not require the use of protective equipment in the form of a respirator or gloves, since the insulation does not emit toxic fumes or small particles, does not cause irritation.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Technical characteristics of extruded polystyrene foam boards

Disadvantages:

  • expanded polystyrene refers to vapor-proof materials, and therefore cannot be used when insulating wooden walls;
  • the insulation collapses upon contact with solvents, drying oil, some types of varnishes, as well as under the influence of sunlight;
  • the sound insulation properties are much lower, than mineral wool insulation;
  • already at + 30 degrees, polystyrene foam begins to emit harmful substances - toluene, styrene, formaldehyde and others. When burning, the amount of toxic emissions increases significantly.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Expanded polystyrene "Technoplex"

In the domestic market, domestic-made EPSPs - "Penoplex" and "Tepleks" are in great demand ", as well as expanded polystyrene insulation of the brands Ursa, GREENPLEX, PRIMAPLEX.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Extruded expanded polystyrene Primaplex-35

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Extruded expanded polystyrene Greenplex

Foam prices

Foam plastic

Cellulose insulation

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Ecowool

Cellulose insulation, which is also called ecowool, is made from waste paper and waste paper.

Ecowool is 80% cellulose fibers, the remaining 20% ​​are antiseptics and fire retardants. The material is densely packed into all irregularities and voids and forms a dense seamless coating with high vapor permeability. Installation of insulation is carried out in two ways - dry and wet-glue, and both options can be done either manually or using a special installation.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Technical characteristics of ecowool

The dry method allows you to perform thermal insulation in a short time and immediately start finishing. But at the same time, the density of the coating will not be high enough, which will lead to shrinkage and the appearance of cold bridges.

In addition, during dry blowing, a large amount of fine dust is formed and you have to work in a respirator.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Thermal insulation with ecowool

The wet-glue method ensures better adhesion of the insulation to the base, the layer is much denser and more resistant to shrinkage, which guarantees the durability of thermal insulation. True, it takes time for the material to dry - from 2 to 3 days, and even more in cold or damp weather. And until the layer is completely dry, you cannot start finishing.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Wet method of applying ecowool

Advantages:

  • environmental safety;
  • excellent heat and sound insulation properties;
  • resistance to bacteria, fungi, insects;
  • fire resistance;
  • long service life;
  • affordable price.

Cons :

  • tendency to shrinkage;
  • high hygroscopicity;
  • labor intensity of manual work.

Polyurethane foam

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Insulation of facades with polyurethane foam

Polyurethane foam, or PPU , belongs to the new generation of heaters and has improved characteristics compared to traditional materials. It is a liquid polymer mixture that, after being applied to the surface, hardens and forms a tough cellular coating. The components are mixed immediately before starting work, and the finished solution is applied by spraying using a special installation.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Polyurethane foam application

Advantages:

  • The liquid mixture easily fills all irregularities, crevices, gaps , it is conveniently applied in hard-to-reach places;
  • the material perfectly retains heat and muffles sounds;
  • PU foam is resistant to chemically aggressive substances, practically does not absorb water, withstands sudden temperature changes;
  • can be applied to any type of surface - wood, concrete, brick, metal;
  • insulation is very light, therefore it does not require reinforcement of load-bearing bases;
  • average service life is 25-30 years.

Cons :

  • polyurethane foam is destroyed by exposure to sunlight;
  • for spraying, equipment and skills are required to work with it;
  • PPU cannot be used in areas that are very hot;
  • high cost of material and specialist services.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Characteristics of polyurethane foam and mineral wool

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Densities of polyurethane foam

Wall insulation technology

Facade insulation can be performed in different ways, depending on the type of insulation. But for all options, a high-quality preparation of the base is a prerequisite, because not a single insulation can stop the processes of destruction of wall materials. Consider the methods of insulation with mineral wool and polystyrene foam plates, as the most popular in frequent construction.

Thermal insulation with mineral wool

Exterior walls are cleaned of dirt, peeling plaster or paint.

Cracks and problem areas are repaired, the places affected by the fungus must be treated. Small irregularities do not need to be eliminated - mineral wool insulation is mounted using a frame, so all defects will disappear inside. Finally, the walls are covered with a waterproof primer with antiseptic properties so that mold does not develop under the thermal insulation layer.

Step 1. The bars for the frame are cut to the required length, treated with antiseptic impregnation on all sides and dried in air.

Tip. The cross-section of the beams should be selected taking into account the thickness of the thermal insulation layer. That is, if slabs with a thickness of 50 mm are stacked in one row, the thickness of the frame should be 5-6 cm, with two-layer laying - at least 11 cm.In the first case, a bar with a section of 50x50 mm is suitable for the racks, in the second - a board of 40x110 mm, installed on the edge.

Step 2.

On the walls, markings are made for the frame guides strictly according to the level, holes are drilled for fasteners and beams are installed. The distance between the posts should be 10-15 mm less than the width of the insulation plate. During the installation process, the location of the elements is controlled by the building level; if necessary, wooden linings are used under the timber so that all the racks are in the same plane.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

The step of the sheathing corresponds to the width of the insulation

Step 3 . Insulation is inserted into the cells of the frame.

To do this, the plates are slightly squeezed along the edges, squeezed between the posts and released. The material spreads out on its own and fills the space tightly. The insulation must be inserted so that there are no gaps between the plates.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Unpacking mineral wool

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Cutting mineral wool

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Laying mineral wool slabs in two layers

Step 4. After filling all the cells from above, the insulation must be covered with a windproof moisture-proof membrane.

The membrane is laid with the marked side out, the canvases are arranged horizontally, starting from the bottom. A construction stapler is used to fix the membrane. The top sheet is laid with an overlap of 8-10 cm, and it is recommended to glue the joints with tape.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Membrane fixation

Step 5 . On top of the membrane, wooden slats of counter-lattice 30-40 mm thick are stuffed to ensure an air gap.

If this is not done, condensation will accumulate on the insulation, moisture will saturate the wooden frame and the structure will quickly become unusable.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Fastening the counter battens

After that, all that remains is to mount the topcoat, for example, siding or corrugated board. The finish must completely cover the thermal insulation layer so that no precipitation falls on the plates. Only under such conditions will the material last a long time and effectively.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

The last step - decorative finishing of the facade

Insulation with expanded polystyrene

This method of insulation noticeably different from the previous one.

First, the base must be leveled so that the material adheres tightly to the surface. Secondly, the installation is carried out without lathing, the plates are fixed with glue and dowels-fungi.

Step 1. Prepared walls are covered with a primer with quartz sand, for example, Betokontakt. If the substrate is porous, the primer is applied in 2 layers.

Step 2. Determine the lower boundary of the thermal insulation and draw a horizontal line around the perimeter of the house. Drill holes for dowels according to the marking with a step of 20-30 cm and fix the starting bar.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

The bar is fixed with dowels

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

The starting bar is fixed

Step 3. Special glue is required to fix the insulation.

It is possible to use assembly adhesive in cylinders, for example, TYTAN STYRO 753, or dry adhesive mixture (Ceresit CT 83).The mixture is diluted in clean water according to the manufacturer's instructions, mixed until homogeneous with a mixer at low speed.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Preparation of glue for foam

Take the first sheet, apply the glue from the back side in a continuous strip around the perimeter and in the center. Next, they apply insulation to the wall, resting the lower edge on the starting profile, check the location with a level, press firmly against the base.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Applying glue

Step 4.

Fix the entire row, tightly joining the sheets together. The next row starts with half of the sheet to offset the vertical seams. Excess glue protruding at the joints is carefully removed with a spatula.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Installing foam plates

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Filling the gaps with foam

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Surface sanding

Step 5. When the adhesive has cured, each sheet must be secured with disc dowels.

To do this, carefully drill holes in the wall through the insulation, insert the dowels and carefully hammer them in with a hammer. One sheet requires 5 fasteners - in each corner and in the center.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Fixing the slabs with dowels

Step 6. Next, knead the glue solution, apply a continuous layer on the insulation, a fiberglass reinforcing mesh is placed on top and immersed in the solution. Openings and corners are additionally reinforced with corner profiles.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

In the photo, fastening corners and reinforcing openings before plastering

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Fixation meshes

When the solution is dry, the surface is sanded, dedusted and plastered with a thin layer. Now all that remains is to paint the facade or apply decorative plaster.

Materials for wall insulation outside: characteristics, methods of fastening to the facade

Painting applied decorative plaster

Ceresit glue prices

Ceresit glue

Video - Insulation materials for walls outside

Video - Insulation of the facade with foam foam

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