In simple terms, mezhventsovye heaters are all types of materials used to insulate joints between logs in the construction of buildings and wood. Once upon a time, exclusively natural materials, such as moss or flax, were used for these purposes, which were manually filled with cracks. Today, in addition to the old "old-fashioned" methods, a number of modern materials and technologies are used to insulate wooden houses, and their choice depends on the financial situation of the future owner of the house and other important criteria.
The main purpose of the mezhventsovy heater - not only prevent heat loss, but also create a comfortable and favorable microclimate inside the room, so it must have the following characteristics:
Mezhventsovy insulation will keep warm and cozy atmosphere in your wooden house
In addition, when choosing a mezhventsovy bar, you should take into account the qualities and characteristics of the material from which the building is built, as well as its main purpose - a residential building, a bathhouse, an outbuilding.
Natural heaters are materials made of natural fibers that have been used for insulating log cabins since ancient times. They have a number of advantages, primarily environmental friendliness and absolute safety for health.
Jute inter-wedge insulation
Jute is one of the most popular insulation materials today. It is made from a plant that can be found in southern latitudes. In its composition, the material is very close to wood, durable and very hygroscopic, therefore it is absolutely not afraid of moisture and can be used for thermal insulation of baths.
Jute also has good decorative properties - a beautiful golden color that looks great against the background of wood walls. It is this color that is an indicator of the quality of jute - some manufacturers add flax fibers to the material, which makes it soft, grayish and significantly loses its quality. Such jute has a low density and cakes much faster.
Another common mezhventsovy insulation is the so-called "fluffy" jute.It attracts the attention of buyers due to its thickness and low cost.
However, all the "splendor" will very quickly disappear under the weight of the building, and the connection of the fibers in this case is carried out using thermal bonding using synthetic materials.
To choose the right jute fiber insulation, you should take into account the required thickness of the material, which directly depends on the surface features of the logs (dryness, evenness, etc.).
sq. You can use another version, with a thickness of 5-6 mm and a density of 400 g / m2. , which fits in two layers.
in two layers.
This is how a high-quality jute heater looks like
A jute heater is offered to customers both in the form of ribbons and in in the form of tow or ropes. The latter option is very popular today, as it gives the building an attractive and finished look.
Mezhventsovy heaters made of linen fibers are cheaper than jute fibers, and have a number of advantages and disadvantages. Flax is absolutely safe for humans (sometimes it is even called good for health), quickly absorbs and gives off moisture, does not accumulate static electricity and does not contribute to the reproduction of microorganisms.
There are no hard or prickly impurities in the material, so all work can be done manually.
Mezhventsovy insulation linen
The most budget option is linen tow, which can be found on any construction market. Its disadvantages are that laying in this case is a rather laborious process (it will have to be distributed manually, which is a rather difficult task), the material can rot, and subsequently birds can take it away. In addition, in linen insulation, a moth often starts up, which gnaws through the material, and when finishing work, it can wind up on a drill.
A more expensive, but at the same time practical solution is linen insulation in the form of a tape, since it is much easier to lay it , and the reliability of the material is much higher.
The material can have different widths, and also does not require preparatory work - it can be laid immediately.
Linnet - natural inter-crown insulation
Hemp is also one from the most ancient materials for insulating buildings made of wood (even the name of the plant itself comes from the word "cauldron") - a material called hemp is made from it. Its disadvantages are exactly the same as that of flaxseed fiber: flammability, a tendency to rot and reproduction of insects.
Chemical characteristics of natural fibers
|Lignin||12.7||2-5|| 3. |
|Pectin||0.2||3||0 , 9|
The main indicator of fiber strength is the content in them natural polymer of lignin. This substance is contained in wood, so natural insulation does not destroy its structure. It promotes stiffness of cells and the formation of drainage channels (most of all lignin is found in jute fibers). Pectin and wax are responsible for the elasticity and flexibility of the material: accordingly, flax has the softest fibers, and jute has the hardest.
Mezhventsovy insulation made of sheep wool
Material for insulating log cabins made of sheep wool appeared relatively recently , therefore it is not widely used.
According to the characteristics declared by the manufacturers, it does not rot, is not affected by harmful microorganisms, and is also hypoallergenic. The main disadvantages of sheep wool are the high cost and a small number of consumer reviews, since the material has been on the market for only a few years, and has not yet been tested by experience.
The structure of the inter-crown insulation made of sheep wool
Mezhventsovy insulation of a log house made of moss
Moss is the oldest insulation that was used to caulk log cabins several hundred years ago. For these purposes, two types of moss are traditionally used: cuckoo flax and sphagnum. Sphagnum contains a substance called sphagnol - it inhibits the development of fungal spores and microorganisms, and is also highly hygroscopic.
Moss absorbs and releases moisture well, so it does not accumulate inside. However, procurement of material and work with it is a rather laborious process. It must be collected in large quantities, well cleaned of branches and debris (if the moss is too dry, you can slightly moisten it with water) and put tightly in the cracks between the logs.
Traditional material for warming between wedges - moss
In order not to make a mistake when choosing natural mezhventsovy heaters, you should remember three basic rules.
Mezhventsovy heaters of combined type are made from a mixture of jute and flax or jute and felt.
The ratio of fibers can be 50/50, 70/30 or 80/20, and the highest quality materials are those where there is a large amount of jute. Heaters with the addition of a large amount of flax have a tendency to decay and low (compared to jute) heat-saving characteristics.
Linovatin is a non-woven fabric produced by the factory on needle punching machines. Linseed fiber is well combed, folded in several layers and the fibers are mixed up with special needles. In addition, there is a quilted version of this material, which is stitched with cotton or polyester threads.
Linovatin is less dense, that is, it has rather low thermal insulation performance. Sewing the material with threads also does not add quality characteristics to it, since cotton rots quickly. If it is planned to use linen for insulating wooden log cabins, you should choose a material with a density of at least 500 g / m2.
Insulation between wedge linen fabric
Heater from a combination jute and flax is a more reliable material, since due to the presence of jute fibers, it is hygroscopic and resistant to negative factors. It can consist exclusively of flax (the so-called Eurolene), and also contain a certain percentage of jute.
The fiber ratio can be 50/50 or 90/10: materials with a high jute content have excellent performance, but at the same time they are quite tough and crumbly. Flaxseed supplements bind fibers well and give them elasticity. The quality of the felt is largely determined by its appearance: the material should be homogeneous, dense, without fire and scraps of threads.
To reduce the cost of the material, some manufacturers fluff up the fibers, because of which its density is significantly reduced. In order not to pay money for air, when buying a mezhventsovy heater, you need to take into account its main characteristics (length, width, weight), on the basis of which the required density is calculated.
It is directly proportional to the weight of the material (measured in grams) and inversely proportional to the width and length (meters). The resulting value is compared with the one indicated on the package: with a thickness of 5 mm, it should be about 400 g / m2. , with a thickness of 8-10 mm - 600 g / m2, 15 mm - 800 g / m2. You should not save on the purchase of insulation with good characteristics, since it is the weakest point of a wooden frame.
The operational properties of many synthetic heaters are inferior to natural ones, but in the assortment of such materials it is quite possible to choose high-quality options.
In this case, it is very important to take into account the features and purpose of the building, since the wrong choice of insulation can lead to unpleasant consequences.
Mineral wool is the cheapest option, but it can be used exclusively for insulating facades. As a mezhventsovy heater for houses made of wood (especially timber), this material is poorly suited. Firstly, when squeezed by crowns, it quickly loses its heat-insulating properties, and, secondly, moisture absorption of its fibers tends to zero. Especially the disadvantages of mineral wool are noticeable when warming baths, so in this case it is recommended to choose another option.
Mineral wool is an inexpensive and practical thermal insulation material, but it is better not to use it as a mezhventsovy heater
Isover is the same mineral wool, but with improved performance characteristics. This is a popular insulation today, which, however, has some features and disadvantages. So, in places where there is practically no gap, it is strongly compressed and loses its thermal insulation properties, but when insulating large gaps, it performs its tasks well. In addition, Izover has several valuable advantages: it is not flammable, does not rot, does not attract birds and is very convenient to work with. However, this modern material has one significant drawback: it is not too environmentally friendly, and at the slightest damage it releases dust that irritates the skin and mucous membranes.
In the case of thermal insulation of baths, Isover also cannot be called a good solution, since it has the property of accumulating moisture, and in the absence of vapor barrier, it gets completely wet at all.
As a heater for wooden houses sometimes polyurethane foam is used, which has the following advantages:
If we talk about the disadvantages of polyurethane foam, then these include:
Most often, polyurethane foam for insulating log cabins is used in combination with other materials, and the laying is done in two ways.
Method # 1.
The bar is placed every half a meter, and at the end of the work it foams. Thanks to this, the crowns dry faster and do not require subsequent caulking. From the inside, the walls are insulated with linen material.
Method # 2. Before using the foam, the joints and crevices in the walls are sealed with tow and the building is allowed to settle well (this usually takes about a year and a half).
After that, five-centimeter slots are made in the tow, the grooves are foamed and sealed with sealant at the seams.
Sealing gaps with a sealant
If a question arises about the use of synthetic mezhventsovy insulation, it is best to dwell on materials of foreign production, in particular, Finnish synthetic felt. It has good thermal insulation characteristics, does not rot, does not get wet and does not contribute to the reproduction of harmful microorganisms.
Modern heaters are reliable and high-quality materials that have all the positive properties of natural fibers, but at the same time they do not have the disadvantages characteristic of flax, jute, wool, etc. The only drawback of such materials is the rather high cost, as well as the fact that they have not yet passed the test of time.
Materials called thermoJUTE and thermoLENE are made from jute or linen fibers with the addition of low-melting biocomponents. Under the influence of heat, they melt and firmly hold natural fibers together. Thanks to this, they keep their shape and shrink well, as well as retain heat well, do not accumulate moisture and prevent the growth of harmful microorganisms. Installation of thermo-JUTE and thermo does not require additional insulation (caulking) of the walls after complete shrinkage of the building.
Thermo-LEN - inter-crown linen insulation
Density 20 kg / m3
Holofiber is a modern material made of polyester, which is a springy fiber. It "adjusts" well to wood, which, like any natural building material, constantly changes shape and volume. This is especially true when building houses from non-profiled timber without grooves - in this case, the logs do not adhere tightly to each other, therefore, even after several procedures for warming and caulking, cracks may appear in them. Holofiber ensures a tight fit of the logs, so there is no need to re-caulk. In addition, such insulation does not retain moisture and is not susceptible to negative factors.
Holofiber® nonwoven fabric
Installation of insulation is an important stage of construction work, which determines the strength and comfort of the future building. The installation technology is selected individually and depends on the peculiarities of log processing (timber, rounded logs, etc.) and the type of insulation. In addition, there are basic rules that must be followed when installing all types of material.
How to properly lay the insulation between wedges
Correct laying of inter-row insulation
Approximately one year after the building has given the necessary shrinkage, the installation procedure the insulation must be repeated.
Usually, installation is carried out in two stages: initial insulation, which is performed at the stage of building construction, and the so-called caulking, that is, secondary insulation. It is necessary to caulk the walls at least twice: immediately after the completion of construction and about a year later, after the building has completely shrunk.
Primary and secondary caulking of a log house
Preparation of tools
For laying the inter-wedge insulation, a set of special tools is used, which can be bought at any store. The main requirement is that they should not be too sharp or rough so that the blades do not cut the material and do not pull it out of the seams.
Necessary for sealing joints in corners and shaped building elements.
The main list of tools for caulking
The material that will be used for insulation must be dry and packed in an airtight packaging. The exception is moss, which should be slightly moistened before work.
Primary caulking of seams
Primary laying of insulation is carried out at the stage of construction of the building, and the algorithm of actions looks like in the following way.
If tape or roll insulation will be used to insulate the log house, it must be cut into strips (they should be about 10 cm wider than the logs).
Step 2. Lay moss or tow in an even layer along the entire length of the log so that the material hangs on both sides by about 5 cm.When using tape insulation, it must be laid on a log with the same stock and secure with a stapler. The second tape is overlapped, so that there are no gaps at the joints.
Step 3. After the entire row around the perimeter is covered with material, the second crown is laid on top.
Step 4. Once the whole blockhouse is completed, you can proceed to caulking. Twist the roller from the insulation and push it into the gap with a caulk - it is important that it is not interrupted and is solid along the entire length of the log house.
The principle of caulking is simple - fill the gap between the crowns tightly with a sealant
After the completion of construction work and shrinkage of the building, caulking of the seams is carried out - additional insulation, for which several technologies can be used.
|Step 1||Stand near one of the ends of the building, put the end of the tape on the ground and move to the other end, gradually unwinding it.The tape should run smoothly, not twist or stretch, but sag slightly|
|Step 2|| Return to the beginning, lift the tape and poke it between the crowns with a chisel or other tool ( do not caulk the gaps, namely slightly tuck the material). |
As soon as the whole wall has been passed, cut off the tape with sharp scissors, leaving a margin of 10-20 cm
|Step 3||At this stage, it is necessary to caulk the wall, but do this very carefully so that the tape does not go in waves. This is done until the entire tape, together with the stock, disappears into the gaps|
|Step 4||Repeat all the processes described above, starting from the first step between the same crowns (several more tapes can be freely laid there, regardless of their thickness and density). Usually, for caulking the walls only from the outside, four times more material is needed than is used for primary insulation during construction|
Insert insulation into the seam
After the insulation, laid in the grooves, becomes very dense (almost like wood), the work can be considered finished.
Caulking of a log house
Often used for caulking log cabins tow and moss, and the work can be done in two ways: "stretching" and "set".
This method can be chosen in cases where the gaps in the log house are narrow and almost invisible. A strip is formed from the insulation (linen, jute tape, etc.), which should be carefully pushed inward so that the edge (4-5 cm) remains free to hang outside. After that, you need to form a thin cord from tow, wrap it in the free end of the material and hammer the roller into the gaps with a chisel.
The technology is effective when the joints and gaps in the log house are wide and deep enough. First of all, long thin cords should be twisted from the material, which are wound into a ball. After that, the ball must be unwound by laying the cords in the slots with a chisel. If the gaps are of different sizes, the required material thickness should be recruited by twisting the cord and forming loops. It is necessary to start caulking "in a set" from above, gradually going down to the lower crowns.
Log caulking technology
Log caulking with tow
There are three main methods of laying jute materials, and the choice of a particular method depends on the quality of the building material that was used to build the building, as well as the tightness structural elements.
Laying without fold
The method is mainly used in the construction of buildings from profiled timber. The tape must be folded in half and laid on the logs with the fold inward so that the distance to the edge is 5 mm.
If the grooves of the logs are also not the same, an additional seal should be placed under the insulation.
Laying insulation, methods
It is not recommended to use adhesives for fixing jute insulation - this is done using a construction stapler ... In places where it will be necessary to drill holes for pins, a cross-shaped incision is made on the surface of the material.
Otherwise, the installation is carried out as described above.
The tape is attached with a stapler
As mentioned above, the moss should be collected in large quantities and thoroughly cleaned of debris. The moss should not be too dry, but not too wet (fresh moss is the best option). When performing work on wall insulation with moss or tow, you should push the material well into the cracks so that birds do not get to it.
Before and after caulking
Another option for using tow is its combination with a sealant.
The building should be pierced twice with tow, wait for complete shrinkage and seal the joints. For greater reliability, it is advisable to lay a cord made of insulation into the grooves. This option usually does not require secondary insulation.
Installation of synthetic insulation usually does not cause difficulties , since it uses exactly the same technology as in the case of tape insulation. The material is rolled out over the log (if necessary, cut into strips) so that it hangs freely on the sides by about 5 cm, after which it is fastened with a stapler and a second log is placed on top.
Excess insulation should subsequently be tucked in, and after a year the log house should be caulked.
Choosing and laying mezhventsovy insulation is an important process that requires a balanced and thoughtful approach. Material with optimal performance and correct execution of the work guarantees the reliability and comfort of a wooden building for many years.
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