Recently, there has been an interest in the architectural styles of the past in private construction. One of them is Art Nouveau - a very memorable and original style that combines a variety of shapes, individuality and comfort. Connoisseurs of classical architecture will hardly like it, as well as those who do not like to attract attention to themselves, but bright and extraordinary personalities almost always prefer modern to all other styles.
Art Nouveau country house
Art Nouveau houses are characterized by flexible facade lines
Modern owes its appearance to the Belgian architect Victor Hort. He was the first to deviate from the accepted standards and began to use a large amount of metal and glass in construction, to give the supporting structures an asymmetric shape, and to make the layout more rational.
Many people liked such changes, and a new architectural style arose in the European culture of the late 19th century.
From Belgium, Art Nouveau spread very quickly throughout Europe, then came to the States. Almost in every country it was called differently: "Art Nouveau" in France, "Jugendstil" in Germany, "Liberty" in Italy, in America - "Tiffany". In Russia, the name "modern" immediately took root, which is still used today. Unlike most other styles, there are no strict restrictions and rules in modern style.
It is suitable for both huge mansions and small cottages, country houses and city buildings. The building can be brick, stone, concrete or wood, often in the Art Nouveau style, frame structures are erected from steel and glass.
Monolithic Art Nouveau house
Mirror Art Nouveau house
Modern house in the Art Nouveau style
The main features of the style:
Very often, a house, a garage, various annexes are combined under one roof, while the exterior decoration of all structures is made in the same way. Glazed terraces, bay windows, balconies, attic superstructures are encouraged.
The openwork wrought iron railings and the same grilles on the windows perfectly match the style. The plinth, as a rule, is finished with wild stone or its imitation, less often with facing brick.
House in the style of "Russian modern"
When building a facade of such houses use modern materials.These include metal, ceramics, glass, concrete or reinforced concrete
From a financial point of view, the Art Nouveau style is quite democratic. There are many finishing options that you can do yourself, saving on the services of specialists.
It is also not necessary to use only expensive materials, although it all depends on your capabilities and preferences.
Beautiful Art Nouveau cottage
A masterpiece by Antoni Gaudi. Casa Batlló is the most famous Art Nouveau building in the world
To build an Art Nouveau house, you need to contact the specialists who develop a project. It will not be possible to independently perform all calculations for such complex architectural structures without experience and relevant knowledge. But it is much easier to stylize a ready-made house into a modernist style, and the presence of specialists is not necessary here.
Consider two options for finishing the facade for a wooden and brick house.
So, for example, let's take an ordinary wooden house from a bar. It can also be sheathed with a board - there is no fundamental difference for modern styling.
Wooden house from a bar
Stage 1. First you need to paint the walls.
Surface preparation is carried out in accordance with the established procedure:
Wood bleach NEOMID 500
Apply with a brush
The first way to remove old paint from wood is to use sandpaper
A much nicer and faster way to peel off old paint with your own hands is to use a grinder
You can remove the paint by heating it with a building hair dryer and removing it with a spatula
After that, the walls are cleaned of dust and well primed in at least 2 layers.
Remove dust from walls
For further finishing you will need 2 types of paints, contrasting in color and well combined with each other. For timber and log walls, pearl gray, all shades of brown, beige is more suitable. For plank walls, you can choose blue, green, red, but do not forget that the shades should be dim, as close as possible to natural.
Outside corners, porch pillars, cornices and windows should be highlighted in a contrasting color such as snow white.
Paints should be water-resistant, resistant to fading and temperature drops, as long as possible. Most of these requirements are met by silicone and acrylic paints for outdoor use, as well as alkyd enamels. Oil oils have a short service life, and therefore it is impractical to use them. The composition is applied in a thin layer with a brush or spray gun.
It is not very convenient to paint wooden surfaces with a roller, since there are many joints and grooves. The number of coats depends on the density of the wood and the covering ability of the paint, usually 2-3 coats are required. When painting with a different color, do not forget to stick masking tape along the contour so as not to stain the already painted areas.
Step 2. When the walls are dry, work on the plinth.
The brick plinth is cleaned with a wire brush to clean the seams and remove any loose pieces.
On a concrete base, check the strength of the plaster, knock down loose pieces with a chisel, and open up cracks. Then the cement slurry is mixed and deep grooves, cracks and through holes are closed. If the irregularities are small, they can be eliminated during the plastering process.
A sonorous sound indicates the reliability and strength of the plaster
Fill cracks and irregularities
So, the order of work is:
The base is leveled and primed
Preparation of a solution for fixing beacons
Install beacons on the solution
Scheme of plastering walls on beacons
The photo shows that the layer thickness should be significant
Leveling the plaster along the beacons
Vertical deviations should not exceed 5 mm, therefore, in the process work periodically you need to check the plane with a level.After 4-7 hours, depending on the type of mixture, the plaster layer is slightly moistened and trowelled with a metal or polyurethane float.
Now you need to decorate the plinth. The easiest and most budgetary option is to imitate masonry using decorative plaster. To do this, mix the solution and apply it with a layer of up to 10 mm.
It is not necessary to level it especially so that the surface looks more like natural stone. When the mixture grasps a little, they take a piece of a rod or a piece of a narrow profile and draw arbitrary broken lines directly on the plaster, giving them a similarity to the edges of stones. After completing the formation of the pattern, sweep away the remnants of the mixture with a brush and leave the surface to dry. Then all that remains is to choose the color and paint the base.
Plastering a base for a stone
When choosing an artificial stone, you will need to buy tile glue and a special compound for grouting.
Procedure for facing:
Preparation of the adhesive mixture
Stir the mixture after 5 minutes of settling
Apply glue to the wall
We glue the stone
The process of facing the basement
Such work requires a certain patience and accuracy, since the artificial stone has an irregular shape and is more difficult stack. For convenience, you can use clinker tiles with smooth edges - it is easier and faster to fix it. After a few days, when the glue is completely dry, the joints should be repaired with grout. It is recommended to take a grout with a contrasting color so that the masonry looks more expressive.
Use the prepared grout in 1 hour
When working with a wild stone, it is more convenient to grind the seams immediately while gluing the stones
Remove excess grout with a trowel
Rinse off the stone surface
Example of finishing
Stage 3. Window decoration. The facade is already painted, the plinth is finished, it remains to add a few characteristic elements of Art Nouveau. And the most important here are the platbands. They differ from traditional Russian platbands in a smaller amount of thread (or its complete absence), curly protrusions in the upper corners, and a wider lower part.
Such platbands can be bought, or you can make it yourself. Due to the rather simple form, special skill is not required here, the main thing is to have the desire and the necessary tool. For work, you will definitely need a jigsaw, preferably an electric one, a drill with a set of drills, sandpaper.
Tip. It is very important to choose the right wood: it is difficult for a beginner to cope with hard species, soft ones are too short-lived.
The best options are pine and birch. They are resistant to negative influences, last longer and respond well to processing.
Step 1. Take measurements of the window and cut the lumber in the required quantity. To make the view of the facade attractive, all windows are designed the same, even if they are of different sizes.
Step 2. Think over the shape and pattern of the casing, make a stencil from thick paper. In the absence of experience, use the simplest drawings as possible.
Step 3. The workpieces are very carefully sanded with emery paper, removing burrs and minor irregularities.
Board for making the platband
Step 4. Attach a sketch to the workpiece and outline the contours with a pencil. The pattern must be along the grain, otherwise the threads may crack.
Draw a drawing according to the template
Step 5. Cut the workpiece with a jigsaw according to the sketch and make longitudinal cuts inside , drills are used for round holes.
All sections are processed with sandpaper and dust-free.
Overlays are cut separately and then fastened on the workpiece, covering it with wood glue from the back and fixing it with small nails without hats. Finished platbands must be impregnated with a protective compound, dried, painted in one color with the outer corners of the facade. After the paint has dried, it remains only to fix them around the openings with self-tapping screws. In the same way, you can make carved ornaments for pediments, cornices and consoles.
Wooden casing for windows
Carved casing for windows
The styling of the brick facade has more finishing options. The most common elements are horizontal rusticated walls, mosaics, stained-glass windows, openwork wrought iron railings and gratings. When plastering the facade, it is customary to combine colors and textures, and they often combine stone cladding with wooden cladding. Of course, the most spectacular are the houses designed in the Art Nouveau style, that is, initially having a complex asymmetric shape and non-standard window configuration. However, an ordinary house can also be given the appropriate look if you try.
This is a fairly simple way of finishing the facade, which does not require large costs and is within the power of a novice master. It is performed on a leveled and plastered surface. Rust blocks are arranged horizontally and can occupy the entire wall or only part of it. Before starting work, you need to make a sketch of the facade and think over the options for placing the rustic stones in order to find the most optimal one. When making rustic stones more than a meter long, you will need an assistant, otherwise it will be difficult to beat off the horizontal correctly.
Methods of making rustic materials
Step 1. The wall is plastered in the traditional way using a cement-sand mortar or dry construction mixture. Apply a spray layer, then a primer coat, carefully level the surface.
Mechanized application of plaster
Step 2. After the soil has dried, knead a portion of the coating solution and distribute it on the wall with a uniform layer 5-10 mm thick.
Step 3. Pull a thin cord along the wall so that it barely touches the surface and does not leave traces on it, set the horizontal in level. Next, take an even long ruler or rail 5-15 mm thick, apply it exactly according to the marking and carefully deepen it with an edge into the solution along the length. You can hit the rail with a hammer, the main thing is that it evenly enters the entire depth of the cover and does not damage the surface.
Making vertical stripes
Step 4 .
Having formed the seam, the rail is also carefully removed from the solution, being careful not to catch the edges. After that, measure up the height of the rustic block and repeat it all over again.
Dust can be removed with a brush
Gently clean the surface with a brush
You need to work quickly enough so that the solution does not have time to set. All depressions must be of the same thickness and width, have smooth edges, and be equally spaced from each other. If the geometric shape is not observed, the finish will turn out to be ugly, and this will negatively affect the appearance of the facade.
When the plaster has set, the surface must be wiped off, and the edges of the rustication should be lightly sanded with fine-grain sandpaper. At the finishing stage, rustic blocks can be covered with textured plaster or painted, highlighting the seams in a different color.
Spray painting of the plaster
Highlighting the joints in a different color
Rusty can be formed in another way. To do this, you need wooden slats of the same length and trapezoidal section. The slats are lubricated with used oil and pressed into the fresh solution with the narrow side, having previously beaten off the horizontal.
After the plaster has set, the slats are removed, and small irregularities are rubbed out or eliminated with a solution.
Rustas are also formed with homemade templates, cut out with a hacksaw or a grinder on dried plaster. You can purchase ready-made foam blocks and simply glue them to the mortar, and then plaster them over the mesh and paint.
Beautiful mosaic of Casa Batlló
Such finishing takes a lot of time and patience, but the result is amazing. Most often, Art Nouveau houses are decorated with separate mosaic panels, and they are located on bay windows, at the entrance doors, between window openings.
Sometimes plinths and balconies are laid out with mosaics.
Now the choice of mosaics is simply huge, manufacturers offer many options from ceramics, glass, smalt, marble and porcelain stoneware. You can also buy ready-made panels, which are highly decorative and easy to install. The most inexpensive option is to make your own mosaic from the remains of ceramic tiles. The tile is easily cracked with a chisel and hammer, so it is not difficult to prepare the required number of fragments.
In addition, jewelry dimensional accuracy is not needed here.
For work, you will need frost and waterproof tile glue, flat and notched trowels, sandpaper, tile grout. So, first you need to determine the place under the panel. This should be a flat, open section of the wall where the pattern will be clearly visible. After that, a sketch is drawn taking into account the size and shape of the selected area.
It is recommended to draw with colored pencils in order to avoid mistakes during the installation process.
According to the sketch, the required number of modules of each shade is selected. If a mosaic of broken tiles is used, the edges of the shards are sanded with sandpaper: this will reduce the risk of accidental injury and make the tiled surface more attractive. When everything is ready, you can start finishing.
The base is pre-cleaned, leveled with cement plaster and primed after drying.
Step 2. Home-made mosaic is first laid out without glue on a flat surface, guided by the sketch. This will help you select the right pieces and speed up their adhesion.
According to the instructions, knead the tile adhesive in small portions. Laying the mosaic takes time, and the glue hardens quickly, so it is impractical to prepare it at once for the entire facing area.
Step 4. Apply glue with a flat spatula on the wall (layer thickness up to 10 mm), then take a notched spatula (teeth height 3-4 mm) and distribute the mass evenly over the surface.
Start laying with large pieces. Each piece is gently applied to the base and pressed into the glue with light rotating movements. To make the lining lay flat, a bubble level or a metal ruler is applied over the fixed modules.You need to work slowly, very carefully, trying not to stain the mosaic with glue.
Step 6 .
Having laid out the base of large pieces, fill the remaining space with small fragments, focusing on the sketch. Do not lay the elements too tightly together or leave seams greater than 5 mm wide.
Step 7. After finishing the veneer, allow the adhesive to dry. This usually takes 1-2 days, depending on the composition of the adhesive and weather conditions.
Next, grouting is performed: the composition is applied with a rubber spatula, carefully rubbing over the surface to fill the slightest gaps.
Grouting the joints
Wipe the mosaic after grouting
Tip. For colored mosaics of light colors, you should select a dark-colored grout - black, blue, dark gray. Conversely, for dark mosaics, the grout should be light. So the panel will look much more expressive.
When the grout has set but not yet hardened, clean the surface with a damp sponge. It is moistened in clean water, squeezed well, and the mosaic is wiped with effort. The sponge must be rinsed as often as possible, changing the water to clean, otherwise dirty stains will remain on the mosaic. You cannot rub the seams strongly, so as not to wash out the excess.
To save time, you can use another method:
The adhesive tape can only be removed after the glue has dried, otherwise the mosaic will also come off the base. If there are sticky scotch marks on the cladding, you need to wipe them with a soft cloth dampened with solvent or alcohol. Grouting is done in the same way as described above.
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