Operating principle and types of pumps + Video and Photo

Operating principle and types of pumps + Video and Photo Currently there is an alternative method to the conventional heating system - heating the house with a heat pump. This is a unit that heats your home in winter, cools in summer, and also provides hot water all year round. It uses energy to produce heat, capable of renewable sources. Such as heated air, earth and water. This transformation is achieved using a special refrigerant substance.

Note: A refrigerant or refrigerant is a working substance of refrigeration machines, which, during boiling, takes away heat from the object to be cooled, then compresses it and gives it away in the form of condensation into the environment.

Principle of operation

The design of a pump of any type of pump is assembled from 2 elements: an external one that takes heat from an inexhaustible source, and an internal one that gives off heat for home heating. A small concentration of thermal energy is found in almost any environment around us. Why not use this. The effect of such a device is that a low-grade source transfers heat to a coolant with a higher temperature.

To make it clearer, let's imagine the operation of a refrigerator. The compressor pumps heat from a place where there is already a small amount, namely from the freezer, to where there is more of it - to the room where it is installed. The main advantage of such a pump is that energy is not thrown away by it, but is spent only on moving heat.

Types of pumps

Based on the heat source, the units are divided into types: earth, water and air.

Ground-water system

Ground most frequently used models.

The energy for their work is taken from the ground. A ground source pump, using vertical probes, goes deep into the ground, from where it takes the heat of the soil and is used to heat the building.

This type of operating costs stands out for the maximum efficiency among all similar mechanisms. This is explained by the high temperature of low-grade sources. The lower the temperature, the greater the cost of electricity will be needed for its transportation.

Important: The ground temperature at a depth of several meters is unchanged throughout the year, even in the most severe frosts. Pipes that go underground can be installed both horizontally and vertically. Based on this, the earthen pump is vertical and horizontal.

Vertical pipes require a large immersion of pipes from 50 to 200 m, through which the refrigerant will circulate. The horizontal method does not require deep drilling.

Here the pipe is laid to a depth of about one meter, depending on the climate of the region.

Important: An area should be allocated for the collector, the area of ​​which is several times larger than the building. And the area under the garden or vegetable garden will not work, since not many plants will be able to survive strong cooling at the roots.


This is also a very effective way, because even at a small depth, the water has a constant and relatively high temperature. Here sources can be: lake, rivers, wells, wells.

The design of water pumps does not differ much from those of earth pumps. The cost of building such a pump will not be large. A pipeline equipped with a coolant is supplied with a load and immersed at the bottom of the source. If groundwater is taken, then the structure here will be a little more complicated. To dump the liquid passing through the heat exchanger, it may be necessary to install another well.


Operating principle and types of pumps + Video and Photo By indicators efficiency, this model is inferior to the previous ones because its power decreases during the cold period. However, nevertheless, for its construction, there is no need for heavy earthwork, the equipment can be installed directly on the roof of the building.

The advantage of the air view is the reuse of heat coming out of the heated space.

Insufficient efficiency in frosty weather can be compensated for by alternative heating. A less expensive option will be the air-to-air heating unit.

Heat pumps are electric and gas. The most popular are powered by electricity. There is a combined type, where heaters (gas or electric) are combined with a thermal device. They are used in situations where the heating unit does not work effectively, for example, due to weather conditions. This is especially true for air models.

Note: Combining reduces capital costs and increases payback period.

Pros and cons

The main advantage of such a heating device is that the operating costs here are much lower than other methods of heating the house. In addition, it is a completely environmentally friendly and safe option. The units are reliable, quiet and easy to use.

Another undoubted advantage is the ability to switch it from heating to cooling.

Why will you need, in addition to heating radiators, the presence of fan coil units. Note: The cooling system works on the same principle as the heating system, only the radiator is replaced by ventilation coils.

Here, the temperature control is carried out using thermostats, and there is also the possibility of programming even when heating with inverter air conditioners.

The following advantages are distinguished:

  • Helps in saving non-renewable energy resources;
  • Operating principle and types of pumps + Video and Photo non-flammable fire parts;
  • heat pump resistant to overheating and explosion;
  • the unit does not emit carbon monoxide;
  • versatility - one device can be heated either the structure is cooled and the water heated;
  • durable, operation up to 50 years;
  • there is no need to coordinate with special services, as when installing a gas boiler;
  • automatic control system ..


Note: In Norway and Sweden, more than 95% of all residential buildings are heated with heat pumps. The downside here will be high capital costs for their purchase and installation. For the device of a vertical type unit, you will need the help of special equipment and qualified specialists.

Economic efficiency

If you want to economically heat your house for many years, you need to initially spend money on the project and device.

Here the payback will be stretched indefinitely, depending on the operating conditions. The environment and its energy are inexhaustible and you don't have to pay for it. If the building is well insulated, then the heating unit will work very efficiently.

Despite the rather expensive equipment and devices, savings on heating will be significant. It will be very beneficial to connect the pump to the underfloor heating system or walls.

since the operating temperature in these devices is about 40 degrees.

As an indicator of savings, there is no possibility of overheating of the heating element and freezing of the heating medium when the pump is off. Than the reliability of the system increases and the risk of accidents decreases.

Features of choice

In areas with moderate climatic conditions, an earthen pump is considered the best pump for heating. And most likely the vertical type, especially if you live in a rocky area.

But such a pump will be the most expensive.

In areas where the climate is mild, an air-type pump can be used, which does not require serious investment and is most effective with relatively small seasonal temperature fluctuations.


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