Every person in life sooner or later faces the problem of updating their living space and, in particular, making a comfortable, practical and beautiful floor , which will emphasize the exclusivity of the interior of the living space.
Before the advent of new technologies in housing construction, decisions to start reworking floors or repairing it were fraught with very great difficulties in installing and replacing an outdated floor and, most importantly, required a lot of time and labor.
Forty years ago it was proposed to replace wooden parquet with a new composite laminate covering.
A mixture of artificial synthetic materials was formed into slabs, filled with resins. were subjected to heat treatment with simultaneous pressing, which ultimately led to the appearance of a rather strong plate, the properties of which pleasantly surprised the creators and made it possible to create a number of products with different characteristics in terms of strength, resistance to external influences, and most importantly, expand the possibilities for making design decisions.
The new floor covering was to the liking of consumers and the demand required expanding the range of laminated surfaces in the areas of laminate use and improving its performance. Fifteen years ago, a laminate for warm floors was launched on the market, a vinyl laminate appeared in five years, and an elastic laminate appeared in another two years.
Gradually, laminate has captured the construction market and is currently the most popular material on a wooden floor, on an uneven floor, on an old wooden floor, on a concrete floor, on a balcony, on plywood, on linoleum. The appearance of laminate on the market allowed a person to reduce repair costs and reduce the time required to repair a floor from several weeks to 2-4 days per medium-sized room, depending on the qualifications of the installers.
There are many different ways to divide the laminated surface into kinds.
Such methods include the division according to the materials for the manufacture of laminate, according to the types of locks, according to emission classes, according to strength class, according to manufacturers, according to texture, etc.
These methods of division are intended for professionals and for an ordinary person who has started repairs at home it is necessary to determine which laminate is needed for the floor.
To do this, I will give the types of division of the laminate by materials of manufacture, by emission classes and by texture. This division will allow an ordinary person to choose the necessary laminate without all sorts of "troubles".
Types of laminate by materials of manufacture allow you to determine which laminate you need to choose depending on the type of room.
And so, according to the materials of manufacture, the laminate is divided into:
This is the standard most common type of laminate flooring that is available in retail as rectangular slabs or square tiles.
This type of laminate is suitable for living quarters, kitchens and hallways, in a word, rooms where there is no possibility of a large amount of water getting on the floor surface.
Such a laminate is suitable for wooden floors, old wooden floors, concrete floors, plywood, linoleum, as well as for underfloor heating and creating a unique interior in rooms.
It is a multi-layer structure consisting of moisture-resistant materials , such as fiberglass, vinyl plates (like linoleum), polypropylene interlayers, etc.
This composition allows you to expand the scope of the laminate to bathrooms and utility rooms, including loggias and balconies, and lay it on wooden floor, uneven floor, old wooden floor, concrete floor, balcony, plywood and linoleum. .
Much like vinyl, but thinner and elastic materials are used in the manufacture of panels based on rubber, acrylic, silicone, etc.
Indoor applications are the same as vinyl laminate, but the application expands depending on the complexity of the floor surface (configuration, height difference, etc.).
Allows to determine the safety of the laminate in relation to the premises in which it is planned to use it as a floor covering and is distributed as follows:
Laminate with E0 class emissions can be used in almost all areas of an apartment or house without any danger to health, including for use in combination with warm floors.
Laminate with E1 emission class is acceptable for use in all rooms, but with restrictions for people with allergic reactions to formaldehyde. and it is also not advisable to use it for warm floors.
| Important to know! |
The increased surface temperature of the warm floor causes intense evaporation of formaldehyde particles, which increases its content in the environment by 2 times and for calculation of safety to the emission class of the laminate must be added by one step (E0 in these conditions will be equal to E1).
Laminate with E2 emission class is recommended only for a bathroom, for hallways, for unheated loggias / balconies, as well as in utility rooms where food is not stored.
High humidity and low temperatures inhibit the spread of formaldehyde in rooms.
Laminate with E3 emission class is not recommended in rooms where people are constantly staying for more than 4 hours. And therefore, I recommend that when choosing a laminate, products with such an emission class should be immediately excluded.
Emission classes apply to the entire range of laminate flooring.
Laminate types by texture allow you to determine the need for a particular type of laminate to create interior design and develop a creative / exclusive approach to creating decorative floor surfaces.
The division by texture is an imitation of the front surface of the plates and is divided into imitation:
From the names of the division of the laminate by texture, it becomes clear what is meant when referring to texture and this type is used only to focus attention on the design calculation of the interior and set the goal of decorating the floor surface.
In this section, I will not focus on specific types of laminate and what characteristics they each have, I will present only a general picture laminated surface and what it is characterized by, and the accents are easy enough to choose according to the tastes of the person who decided to repair the floor, the main thing is that the line of laminated products on the market allows you to do this.
Laminate surface is an almost universal design solution to emphasize the individual preferences of the owner and competitors in this area, laminate flooring has very little, unless you take an expensive segment of flooring. In this regard, the texture and high quality imitation of the surface allows you to accurately convey the naturalness of the surface.
The next characteristic feature is a high degree of smoothness of the surface, hidden connections of the plates and exceptional evenness, which creates a feeling of self-sufficiency and "wealth decoration "premises.
In one characteristic it is possible to combine the wear resistance and impact resistance of the laminated coating, which usually complement each other. The high quality of the laminate allows it to be used continuously for 25-35 years, which is guaranteed by the manufacturer.
Ease of cleaning laminated surfaces lies in the sufficiency of wet cleaning and the use of a vacuum cleaner to remove everyday surface contaminants, which saves time and allows you to focus more on other daily activities.
Convenience of installation is confirmed by the recommendations of manufacturers and their instructions, which include 5-6 technological operations available to any person with secondary education.
Convenience and ease of processing panels in order to give them the necessary configuration. Laminate processing does not require a special tool, just have an ordinary hacksaw, jigsaw or simple scissors.
The negative characteristics include the weak water resistance of some types of laminate, low environmental friendliness of the laminate with E2-E3 emission class, increased sliding of glossy surfaces of some types of laminate.
Now it is very difficult to characterize laminate flooring in any way on a negative basis due to the fact that the production of laminate is constantly improving, if something was a clear disadvantage of the laminate 5 years ago, then this can not be found in modern products.
The choice of laminate is traditional and is a standard list of actions that must be taken into account when choosing:
A consistent analysis of these factors will narrow the range of laminate flooring to several options, which will allow you to concentrate in consultation with sellers before purchasing the laminate directly .
Due to the large number of manufacturers in the laminate market, it is necessary to visit the manufacturers' websites in advance on the Internet and familiarize yourself with their labeling, product features, history and product reviews. This will avoid the purchase of counterfeit laminate, which is abundant on the market.
After determining the objectives of the purchase of the material and choosing the appropriate options, you should visit the outlet in this regard, it is preferable to choose large chain stores or specialized construction boutiques, which will give you the opportunity and guarantee that if you calculate incorrectly, you can buy selected laminate from the same manufacturer or return a previously purchased product without problems.
Before buying a laminate, be sure to take care of the related products related to the possible sealing of defects in the laminated surface, this will allow you to choose suitable materials for the texture of the selected laminate ...
You need to know!
When calculating the amount of laminate required by the area of the room, it must be multiplied by a factor of 1.25 - 1, 4, which is due to the need to cut laminated plates in order to observe the principle of alternating transverse seams in adjacent rows at a distance of at least 15-20 centimeters from each other.
Methods for laying laminate flooring on the floor surface consists in observing a fairly narrow range of principles that will exclude premature damage to the laminated surface.
The first principle is to carefully prepare the underlying surface under the laminate, it must be level without significant potholes and drops. Tolerances in this case are calculated as 1-2 mm. defect height difference.
It is necessary to clearly establish for yourself that the defects of the underlying floor surface under the laminate cannot be eliminated more than tolerances with the help of a substrate.
The second principle is determined by the requirement to lay the laminate on a substrate, which is selected depending on the type of room, for residential premises it is desirable to use a substrate made of natural materials, for non-residential premises it is desirable to use synthetic / artificial materials ...
Important to know!
The substrate must be from one manufacturer to the total continuous flooring area of the room. This is due to the lack of standards for the production of the substrate.
Differences in the thickness or type of substrate can adversely affect the flatness of the laminated surface or the appearance of additional hazards when using materials that, when interacting with each other, can release toxic substances.
The third principle is that the seams along the width of the plates on adjacent rows do not coincide and the distance between them along the row line is at least 15-20 cm. This principle is associated with ensuring strength and reliability of connections on the laminated surface.
The fourth principle follows from the properties of laminated panels and determines the requirement when laying laminated panels, it is necessary to leave a gap of at least 1 - 1.5 cm from walls or stationary objects on the floor of the room (stairs, stationary cabinets etc.
Laminated boards tend to expand under the influence of temperature or humidity changes and the absence of gaps can lead to swelling of the laminated surface.
The fifth principle is determined by the need for sequential stacking of panels, in other words, without finishing the first row, you cannot start laying the second row.
The sixth principle is to use a special lining on the panel locks when pushed in order to connect the panels to each other. The lining is cut from the pieces of the laminate lock part, which should enter the lock from the side of the panel padding.
The seventh principle is based on the need to comply with the angle of insertion of the laminate panel into the lock of the panel of the adjacent row of the corner at least 45 0 , in order to prevent damage to the lock and full engagement of the panel .
.. When engaging, it is necessary to use the padding only if necessary, usually with the correct positioning of the plates, they freely enter the lock with minimal tapping with the palm.
Laminate panels from the side edges are very "afraid" of impacts from particularly hard objects, therefore, when driving, you must use a lining and a light hammer weighing no more than 200 - 300 grams, swing at impact should be no more than 15 -20 cm from the surface hit by the hammer.
Eighth principle: when laying the final rows on the trimmed plates along the length, make a beveled chamfer to the base to give the possibility of free entry of the plate into the lock of the penultimate row.
For the purpose of padding, use a special "mounting" in the form of a metal plate curved along the edges in different directions. Rails are usually sold in a set for mounting laminated panels.
With a small room width of up to 5 meters, it is desirable to assemble a whole row of plate end locks before joining the rows, and then, with the help of assistants, insert the entire row to the castle. This will ensure that the end locks of the panels are kept intact and ensure their reliable connection, in contrast to the traditional method of alternating plates.
This is not the whole list of principles for laying laminate, which must be adhered to, but their observance will allow you to correctly lay the laminate.
For some types of laminate, some of the principles may not be relevant.
Thank you for asking for advice, I hope it was useful to you.
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