Pebble decorative plaster of facades is considered the most effective and economical method of finishing walls. A wide variety of types and unique technological properties for creating various patterns significantly expands the scope of the material. Pebble decorative plaster of facades is used in all types of building decoration, hides certain flaws, serves as additional protection of load-bearing walls from the harmful effects of precipitation and large fluctuations in ambient temperatures.
Decorative pebble plaster "Sponge mosaic"
Types of pebble plaster
About 20 years ago, the main problem of plasterers was the presence of stones of various sizes in the cement-sand mortar. During grouting, they left deep stripes on the surface, you had to remove them with your hands and repeat the grout.
To exclude such phenomena, the sand was carefully sifted through fine sieves, there was no purchase at that time.
Today, building materials technologists have turned the presence of stones from a disadvantage into an advantage, however, the stones have a strictly calibrated size, from their size depends on the appearance of the plastered surface. Due to the fact that decorative plaster is applied in a thin layer, the use of cement as a binder is impractical, cement at a small thickness does not provide the required layer strength.
Decorative acrylic pebble plaster with quartz sand
Pebble plaster is made using synthetic binders. They not only firmly hold individual elements, but also have great plasticity and elasticity - the appearance of cracks on the plaster is completely excluded, even in case of critical deformations and ruptures of the base.
Pebble plasters are made on an acrylic, silicate or combined base.
Depending on the decorative filler, stone plaster can be marble, granite or artificial stones. From the method of finishing smoothing and the size of the stones, the structure of the coating changes, taking into account these indicators, such plaster can be called "Venetian", "fur coat", "bark beetle", etc. The material is used both for finishing the facade walls and for decorative plastering of internal surfaces ..
Facade decorative plaster
Application of plaster
It is impossible to describe all manufacturers and brands of their products in one article. By and large, there are no fundamental differences between them, we will give brief characteristics of only the most famous brands of the Ceresit brand among professionals. We work under this brand and many domestic companies licensed by the original manufacturer.
|Technical markings||Composition of the plaster||Approximate material consumption per m2 in kilograms of dry mix||Approximate cost of a bag 25 kg|
| On acrylic basis, the size of the fraction of stones 1. |
5 mm and 2.5 mm
| Size of stones 1.5 mm - 2.7 |
Size of stones 2.5 mm - 3.
|On an acrylic basis , used to create the texture "bark beetle"||The size of the stones 3.0 mm - 3.7||1400-2000 rubles|
|Base - acrylic, used to create a decorative structure "bark beetle"||Size of stones 2.0 mm - 2.7||1500-2000 rubles|
|On a silicate base, increased plasticity|| Pebble size 1. |
5 mm - 2.3
Pebble size 2.5 mm - 3.9
|3300- 4000 rubles|
|Silicate, universal use|| Pebble size 2.0 mm - 2. |
|Acrylic, has high resistance to direct action of water, does not have hygroscopicity|| Pebble size up to 1.2 mm -3, 0 |
Pebble size up to 1.6 mm - 4.0
Pebble size up to 2.0 mm - 4.
Pebble size up to 2.5 mm - 5.2
|Silicate-acrylic, combines the positive qualities of both materials|| Stone size 1.5 mm - 2.5 |
Stone size 2.
0 mm - 3.6
|Silicate-acrylic, universal , you can create various structures of the outer surface||Pebble size 2.0 mm - 2.7||2200-2500 rubles|
Ceresit CT 72 2.5 mm
Ceresit CT 60
All mixtures should be applied only at positive temperatures, the time of use from the moment of preparation does not exceed 60 minutes.
To increase adhesion, surfaces should be primed in two coats; avoid gaps during priming. For the preparation of ready-made solutions, clean water at room temperature is used; you can mix it manually or with an electric mixer.
The mechanical method of preparing pebble plaster is preferable - the homogeneity of the prepared material increases. During the production of work, it is necessary to periodically stir the composition, to prevent sedimentation of solid additives and separation of the solution into separate fractions.
Before plastering, surfaces must be cleaned of dirt, wide cracks and large recesses should be repaired.
These are general guidelines for applying all types of decorative pebble plaster on building facades.
As an example, we will take one of the most difficult options for plastering facade walls using three colors and three different sizes of stones.
Step 1. Take off the dimensions of the front walls, excluding door and window openings. Calculate the total area.
This data will come in handy when determining the quantity of materials.
Using a tape measure, measure the walls and find out their area
Always buy one 25 kg bag of plaster in stock. Having a reserve, you can work more calmly, and even then, during cosmetic repairs, it can be useful. Keep in mind that the thickness of the layer depends on the maximum diameter of the stones, what diameter they have, this will be the minimum thickness. Some increase in the parameter can only be in the grooves.
Pay attention to the grain size of the stone plaster
Purchase plaster with a stock
Step 2. Prepare your work area and tools. To work, you need a wide and narrow spatula, a metal grater, a trowel and a mixer.
Step 3. Install the scaffolding.
You can make them yourself from lumber or rent metal ones. The second option is better - work is much faster, labor safety is increased, and the quality of plastering of facade walls is improved. Wooden ones can only be installed by experienced builders, and then only if the lumber, after dismantling, can later be used in the construction of a house. Buying them specifically for the manufacture of scaffolding is expensive.
Determine the zones of placement of different colors and grades of plaster. For example, we suggest white in the upper third of the building, yellow in the middle and brown in the lower third of the facade wall. These colors were not chosen by chance. The lower brown one gets less dirty, and the two light upper ones visually increase the height of the facade walls - the building takes on a more prestigious look.
Shades of plaster
Facade plaster differs not only in color, but also in size of stones.
The smallest ones (Ø up to 1.0 mm) in the upper third of the wall, in the middle Ø up to 2.0 mm, in the lower one up to 3.0 mm. The larger the diameter of the pebbles, the thicker the plaster layer, this is exactly the effect we need to achieve.
Grains of mineral plaster
In the lower part of the building, mechanical damage is most likely, and the thick layer has increased physical strength. The color of the plaster is changed by adding powder mineral dyes to the mixture.
Always start from top to bottom. If you do the opposite, then fresh plaster can fall on the already finished layer, then it will have to be removed.This is a waste of time, leading to a significant decrease in labor productivity.
In addition, multi-colored plasters can leave stubborn marks.
Step 5. Make markings on the front wall. Two horizontal lines should be marked along the entire length of the house. First, measure the total height of the walls, divide the resulting value into three parts.
This will be the width of each color of the plaster. Then, using a level and a rope with blue color, beat off two parallel lines. It is better to use a water level, an ordinary one gives a big error.
Step 6. Fasten straight thin wooden battens exactly along the lines.
Enough thickness within a centimeter, take small carnations no more than three centimeters long. If they do not completely enter the base, it is not critical. The main thing is to keep the rail. If you are doing decorative plaster on polystyrene, then there are fewer problems. If the base is an ordinary cement-sand plaster, you will have to suffer a little.
Step 7. Pour water into the container and add the dry mixture. The amount of water per kilogram of the mixture is indicated in the instructions for use, strictly adhere to the recommended proportions. They can only be changed by experienced plasterers, taking into account the peculiarities of the surface; it is not recommended for beginners to experiment. Stir the mixture thoroughly.
The presence of dry lumps is strictly prohibited. After mixing, leave the solution for 5-8 minutes to infuse.
Prepare the mixture and water, mix the ingredients
Step 8. Start plastering the upper third of the facade wall ..
. It is necessary to dwell on manual technology in more detail.
But working with such tools is more difficult, we do not recommend for beginners to immediately take up large floats, fill your hand on medium-sized tools. For the first time, take about 100-150 ml of solution. The more experience appears, the more plaster can be applied at a time, the faster the work will go.
Hold the trowel correctly
Both options have the right to life, choose the one that you like best.
What is the difference between them and in what cases they are used, we will describe below. When leveling, periodically wash the trowel's working surface in a bucket of clean water. Otherwise, the milk will hide the pebbles, which will significantly worsen the appearance of the front wall, the pebble plaster will turn into ordinary one. How to make a different texture will be discussed in separate chapters of the article.
Applying decorative plaster
Until the mixture has solidified, carefully remove the strips. Press the edges against the wall with a clean spatula, level the tubercle. Hand movements should be directed upwards, do not touch a clean wall.
The photo shows how to use adhesive tape instead of strips to distinguish between two shades
The tape should be removed immediately after applying the plaster
Step 10 . Level or structure the plaster as desired.
The next day, fix one strip on the end line of the finished plaster, and the second on the previously marked line. Repeat all work according to the above algorithm. The last stage is the lowest layer of brown pebble plaster with large stones.
Smoothing the plaster
The pneumatic unit allows speed up the work process. But buying it specifically for one house is impractical, rent it or work by hand.
Several layers are applied with a pneumatic spray, the minimum quantity is at least two. The fact is that in one pass it will not be possible to achieve a uniform thickness of the plaster.
Spray application of pebble plaster
Important. The wall surface for pneumatic plastering needs to be prepared more carefully. The technology does not allow to level surfaces as it is done with a spatula.
To eliminate transitions in height, they need to be trimmed with a finishing putty, and the junction points should be smeared with a damp sponge. Work very carefully, do not make grooves instead of tubercles.
When working with a pneumatic unit, you should take measures to protect the respiratory system, in addition to a respirator, wear special work clothes with a hood. The distance from the nozzle to the wall is approx. 50 cm, the consistency of the plaster is slightly thinner than when plastering by hand.
Be sure to protect window panes and frames, doors and door trims from the solution.
Pneumatic airbrushes, spray guns, texture guns
Such plaster looks original only on the front walls; it is not recommended to use it during interior decoration. The first operations of plastering are standard, the "bark beetle" is obtained at the finishing stage. For work, you can use a metal or rubber grout. The second is better - pebbles do not slide on it, the grooves are easier to make, the direction of the grooves changes without problems.
Rubber spatula for grouting
"Bark beetle" can be done with both vertical and circular movements of grouting. Do not press it hard, the main thing is that the pebbles do not slip while moving, but roll over. The grooves are formed by rolling. Do not forget to periodically rinse the grout, otherwise the grooves are tightened with milk, the process has to be repeated many times.
Up and down movements
Spiral structure "Bark beetle"
Various texture changes can only be made on surfaces pre-treated with two coats of white primer. In the grooves, the thickness of the plaster is only a few tenths of a millimeter, the base will show through. In this case, the primer not only increases the adhesion of materials, but also makes the base uniform, which is very important for the "bark beetle" plaster.
No professional can describe all types of finishing of stone plaster. The number of options depends on the skill and desire of the master to experiment.
Finishing with stone plaster - photo
On the surface, you can make various textured depressions with a narrow spatula, comb, special embossed rubber rollers, etc. and then, after a slight setting of the solution, slightly trim the surface with metal grout. Feel free to experiment, choose an inconspicuous section of the facade wall and try different options on it. Apply what you like on the facade of the house. Always keep in mind - not what the designers recommend is good, but only what you like.
The house was not built for various advisers, but for you.
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