Pile field - description, calculation, DIY construction + Video

Pile field - description, calculation, DIY construction + Video Pile field - description, calculation, construction. The foundation on the pile field consists of piles, which are preliminarily driven into the ground and a reinforced concrete grillage - a solid reinforced concrete slab or tape, which corresponds in shape and size to the configuration of the future structure.

Let's take a closer look at everything connected with it.

Briefly about the pile field

The pile field is an integral part of any foundation on piles - screw, reinforced concrete or bored. After the strapping of separately located piles with the help of a grillage has been carried out, the pile field can be used as a base for the construction of industrial and residential premises, as well as hydraulic and engineering structures.

Grillage and piles in this type of foundation perform two functions at once - the grillage combines the supports to form a monolithic structure and evenly distributes the load of the building mass between the total number piles, makes them more stable and increases the level of resistance. Pile field elements are required to transfer the load of the total weight of the structure to the soil in which the supporting part is located. Due to the fact that they are located at a depth of 3 to 14 meters, the weight of the structure is transferred to high-density, stable and deep soil, and this is very important when building on problem areas of land.

Important! The construction of the building is carried out after the piles have been tied, since the grillage used for this purpose is the bearing surface for laying the walls.

Methods of placing piles in the foundation

According to the form of the grillage and the projected load, the piles can be arranged as follows:

  • Pile field - description, calculation, DIY construction + Video In the form of a bush - is a collection of a small number of piles, which are compactly located side by side.

    In this case, the grillage will have an aspect ratio of no more than 1 to 5. With this arrangement, you can install columns or single high structures (rack, chimney).

  • In the form of a strip - is required if you have an elongated and extended foundation, which is made for embankments, long walls, etc.
  • In the form of a pile field - is completely different from the previous types, since it consists of a large number of piles, for example, during construction and construction on a grillage in the form of a slab, under the bridge supports and on others solid foundations.


It is interesting that the dictionary explains the concept more easily: Pile field - is a rectangular section of the water area / territory where piles were driven along the design grid.

Based on the above, and depending on the size, the piles can be located:

  1. Staggered.
  2. In rows.

By the way, when it comes to a small number of piles, they are always placed in rows, and for a larger area, a checkerboard pattern is used.They are driven in in such a way that the distance from the outer edge to the extreme lines of the axis is equal to the diameter of the piles.

Design rules

Before starting the construction of the pile field, everything should be designed.

But even before that, a geodetic survey of the soil on the site should be carried out.

During the investigation, the following data will be determined:

  • The carrying capacity (that is, the resistance force) of the earth.
  • Soil density.
  • Moisture saturation level.
  • Freezing depth.

  • Layering of other types of soil over the area of ​​the construction site.

Please note, that the need for research arose due to the fact that the actual capacity of the piles cannot be calculated only from the data of the material of manufacture, since the carrying capacity of the soil is most often less. For this reason, the properties of the piles will be calculated based on the soil characteristics.

Calculation of the quantity

How to calculate the pile field? Determining the number of supports requires three steps:

  1. Determine the total load that will act on the foundation during operation.
  2. Determine the resistance force of one pile.

  3. Divide the total load by the bearing characteristic of the piles to obtain the number of supports.

To calculate the total loads, you should find out the mass of the building, this will help the indicators of the specific gravity of both building materials that will be used in construction, and the area of ​​all elements.

After that, you can proceed to the calculation of the operational load, and its value in accordance with GOST No. 20107-85 is:

  • In residential buildings 145 kg / m 2 floors.
  • In industrial - 205 kg / m 2 .

Important! If you are planning to design a pile field for a two-story building, the service load should be determined taking into account two floors.

After that, you should calculate the load from the snow pressure in winter, but the value will vary depending on the location of the building. When calculating the snow load, the roof area should be multiplied by the average snow mass in the region by 1 m 2 .

Selection of reinforced concrete piles

The most popular type of reinforced concrete piles in the field of housing construction are pillars of square cross-section 0.3 * 0.

3 meters.

Such piles, as a rule, are used for construction:

  • Multi-storey and low-rise buildings.
  • Industrial buildings - storage facilities, hangars, warehouses.
  • Strengthening the existing pile foundation.

Please note, that if you need to build a heavy building, the piles will have to provide the maximum resistance force, you can use pillars with a cross section of 0.

35 * 0. 35 and 0. * 0. 4 meters. For relatively light buildings made of wood or foam concrete blocks, piles of 0.

25 * 0.25 meters are suitable.

Square piles are used in the construction of structures and buildings for all types of soil, including:

  • Puppy.
  • Inclined to horizontal shifts.
  • Moisture-saturated and low-density, i.

    e. peat bogs, swampy and silty soil.

In areas where the seismic level is not higher than 6 points, square piles with an internal cavity can be used. Due to the savings in materials for consumption in their production (reinforcement and concrete), such products will be cheaper than solid piles.

If there is a large upper layer of unfavorable soil (more than 10 meters) at the construction site, and the length of the piles is not enough for opening, composite structures should be used.

So, the total length can be up to 29 meters due to the docking of individual sections during immersion.

Sample plan

Here is a video of how to make a sample pile field for a house, which is approved with the customer. Approval is a mandatory procedure before starting hammering work.

How to make a markup?

Geodetic setting of a field on piles is one of the main stages of initial work before driving the piles into the ground.

This process consists of several stages:

  • Transferring the field baselines - inner and outer contours to the site.

  • Marking of driving places for all elements according to the design scheme.
  • Determination of the zero level of the floor (the height for trimming the supports after they are driven in).

The markings should be carried out using batten boards, and between them, stretch a string or soft wire. When marking places for immersion, the twine should be pulled perpendicularly so that the intersection coincides with the point of driving the reinforced concrete structure.

Please note, that the marking of the field must be documented, and when performing the work, an "Act of breaking the axes of the pile field" should be drawn up, to which a drawing with basic information - step location, position of base lines, elevation marks.


Creation of the foundation of the pile field begins with preparation and special works, which include:

  • Transportation of construction equipment to the construction site.
  • Delivery and unloading of piles, distribution of material to consumable warehouses.
  • Development of the site vertically (creation of a pit, if provided for by the project).

When the laying of the pile field is completed, you can start work on the pile driver, which will drive the reinforced concrete piles.

The process is carried out in several stages:

  1. The pile driver is installed at the place where the driving will be done, the pile is fixed with a winch and pulled to the diving point.

  2. The team slinging the piles, then it is lifted and placed vertically in place for driving.
  3. The pile is fixed on the head mast and joined with a hammer for driving piles, the element is checked for verticality (in the case when inclined driving is checked the angle of inclination).
  4. The hammer of the pile starts striking the submerged element until the pile design failure occurs.

Failure occurs at the moment when the immersion depth from the number of hammer strikes coincides with the number calculated in the project. After that, you can proceed to the immersion of the next pile, and so on until the entire pile field is equipped.


After reviewing, you can summarize that this is an excellent technology that will help to establish the foundation for various types of buildings. Thanks to a huge number of calculations and analyzes, you can create a foundation that will last for decades.