Quite a lot of time passes from the beginning to the completion of construction. All this considerable period, dry lumber must be stored somewhere. If you store it just outside, then precipitation, sun rays and a sharp change in temperature will do their job. Wood will lose its working qualities, color, and may become completely unusable. Therefore, for its storage, conditions must be created so that it can lie long enough without damage.
The best way to protect any building materials from all kinds of damage is storage in a warehouse. But this method is not available to everyone and not always.
If the wood is left for a long time, it will develop spots of rot and mold, and its performance will deteriorate. Accordingly, the service life and cost of such material also becomes lower. Proper storage of wood takes place in large piles, in which the maximum amount of wood resources falls on one square of the area.
Due to this density, domestic transportation costs as well as rental costs are reduced.
For profitable wood processing with a minimum amount of waste, it is necessary to keep it clean - containing less debris and bark. It is possible to exclude the ingress of sand and soil polluting it on the massif by laying the forest on special supports, for the manufacture of which you can use non-standard material.
The edges of the stacks are fixed with logs laid across: this is how the gravity of the structure is directed towards its center.
Bright sunlight and high humidity are dangerous for wood .
It often cracks from the sun, and starts to rot from the water. Therefore, it is so important to have good ventilation, or the ability to ventilate well the room with the material stored there.
The shelf life of lumber largely depends on the time when they were harvested. In the winter-autumn period, the trees are somewhat drier than in the summer-autumn period.
Therefore, it is better to engage in logging in winter or autumn - this way you can get material of higher quality.
Warehouse - the most suitable place for the proper and safe storage of materials of all kinds. Storage rules are detailed in the relevant rules of state standards. Special storage hangars are usually located on a hill. Good air circulation should be established in the room, then the material will be properly ventilated.
To avoid the accumulation of rainwater, a slight incline must be provided inside the building.
The very location of such a hangar is chosen in accordance with the established rules.
It should be located at a distance of at least 100 meters from possible sources of contamination of the wood massif, and at least 50 meters (at least) from residential buildings.
Warehouse often subdivided into separate zones:
They are separated from each other by partitions. For work on loading and unloading, a special overpass platform with a wooden floor is organized.
The material for manufacturing must undergo the necessary processing - be well dried, as well as impregnated with an antiseptic and other protective compounds.
If it is not possible to arrange just such, it is permissible to make its analogue, for example, from asphalt. On top of it are also processed wood beams. The platform level needs to be made just above the general level of the storage floor.
There are often situations when it is not possible to organize a warehouse according to all the rules.
Nevertheless, it is necessary to think about how to correctly place lumber on the street for their better safety, how to fold the boards for storage. Usually, awnings are arranged for this: they can be closed or open. What should you know about them?
When arranging a canopy open , remember that it must be located strictly along the movement of the winds prevailing in this area. Such structures are often used to store materials in a fairly warm summer period. New wood can be placed in them, which is still only being tested for physical qualities.
Unlike those mentioned above, closed structure storage sheds are placed across the prevailing winds . These devices are equipped with special collapsible walls, and are designed for a fairly long shelf life. The soil under the canopy must certainly be concreted or asphalted. The stacking sheds are side-mounted. A wide, at least 3 meters, passage is required to move the loading equipment.
There are special requirements for the walls of such structures. They are required to protect lumber outdoors from rainfall, high humidity and scalding sunlight. In addition, they should not interfere with the content of proper ventilation, as well as "breathe". The foundations for both types of structures, indoor and outdoor, are recommended to be made of stone. All wood used for the arrangement of structures must be absolutely healthy.
It has already been noted above that for this it is treated with antiseptics, ensuring the safety of wood.They will be able to prevent the appearance on the material of foci of damage by fungi, mold, which, spreading, will have a negative impact on the entire forest stored under the canopy. The roof of the building is preferably made of metal.
Most often sawdust is stored in the open air, in huge piles reaching a height of several floors. Thanks to such a compact arrangement, they suffer less from precipitation, and the costs for their subsequent drying are reduced.
In addition, free space for storing other materials is thus significantly saved.
Sawdust and wood chips are best stored in areas covered with asphalt without mineral admixtures. If there is no possibility of installing an asphalt pavement, then it will be quite successfully replaced by a cushion of chips laid on the ground, about 0.6 meters thick.
In order for lumber and wood to be stored in the designated place without damage for a long time, they must be subjected to regular sanitary measures.
They will consist not only in cleaning the warehouse structure from dust, dirt and chips. Although these are also very important and necessary manipulations to ensure the fire safety of the premises.
In warm weather, the warehouse area should be carefully treated with a weak saline solution or an even weaker solution of H2SO4 (sulfuric acid). This will prevent unnecessary grass growth in the area. In the cold period, you need to monitor the cleanliness of the roof, timely clearing both it and the area from the snow that has fallen.
At regular intervals, a careful examination of the stored lumber, as well as all parts of the storage itself, is carried out. Over time, all kinds of microscopic lesions are often formed on them, in the place of which the disease can later develop.
All timber found with damage is best removed from the common area. They move to the scrap or disposal area.
Such objects are usually under the scrutiny of firefighters.
Inspectors prescribe safety rules for the facility that must be followed. All types of wood are extremely flammable, so everything related to fire safety should be treated with increased attention. The room for storing lumber should be equipped with the means necessary for extinguishing fires, which are in full working order . In the event of a critical situation, they can be used without delay.
Proper storage of parquet boards and other materials is extremely important.
The first thing that the material arriving at the warehouse needs is unloading.
During this process, it is laid on special beams - lining. This is done to protect wood from possible negative influences.It is strongly discouraged to lay any kind of materials on "bare" ground.
If the material arrives in different batches, in different cars or wagons, it is a bad idea to store it together.
All incoming material must be placed in a warehouse or under a canopy no later than two days after unloading. In the cold season, there are exceptions, and this period increases to 3 days.
At the storage location, all the material is stacked in neat piles, spaced from each other at a certain distance, so as not to interfere with movement around them. Materials in adjacent stacks should not touch each other - this is also ensured by observing the distance between them.
So, according to modern rules, it is necessary to store almost any lumber.
It is important to strictly follow all regulations and recommendations developed for this. This applies to any storage device - warehouses, hangars and sheds. If they are not observed, an emergency situation may arise when the material is subject to deterioration and decay. And this is an additional item of construction costs, which hardly anyone will be happy about.
( 6 marks, average 4.
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