Polymer membranes are new generation waterproofing materials. Revolutionary innovations in the chemical industry, which began to be introduced into industry in the 90s of the twentieth century, were marked by the emergence of plastics, available to many.
A kind of revolution took place in many industries where human labor was involved. The world has received innovative materials with new unique properties. One of these materials is a waterproofing membrane for foundations and other structures.
Earlier, to protect building structures from the effects of excessive moisture, bitumen, roofing felt, roofing felt were used.
Membranes have the best technological characteristics and unique properties, thanks to which they are widely used. This material is used to form a barrier to water penetration on horizontal and vertical surfaces.
When laying the waterproofing membrane, there is no need to perform the actions of coating the surface with primers or using an open flame. The material is laid with the utmost speed, which enables workers to cover an area of about 500 m² in one shift.
Note. In European countries, the percentage of use of waterproofing membranes is about 25%, while in the Russian Federation the indicators are at a low level - 1.5%.
Most building materials do not like to come into contact with water, because as a result they lose their operational properties. For example, getting into concrete, water promotes leaching of binders, as well as rusting of metal reinforcement.
The wood, in turn, begins to rot water when exposed to excess moisture.
Walls that are supported as a foundation are filled with moisture due to through filtration. Often they are built from materials with pores and low heat conductivity. The increased humidity of structures affects the decrease in heat transfer properties, the maintenance of a favorable microclimate in the house, and vice versa, contributes to the formation of moldy areas. Excessive moisture negatively affects the technological properties of materials, thereby reducing the bearing capacity and causing the collapse of structures, reducing the service life of the rear.
Among the domestic manufacturers of waterproofing membranes, it is worth noting: Icopal, Technonikol, Sika, Tema, Protan, Izol, Rubitex, Bikrost.These manufacturers give a guarantee of material service for 25 - 30 years.
This material is made from plasticizer, polymer and mineral components. As a percentage, the composition of the membranes consists of: 48% chalk, 49% modifying additives and fire retardants, 3% dyes.
Storage of bulk substances is carried out in vertical silos, and plasticizers are stored in liquid form in tanks. A clear dosage of raw material supply is provided by a cascade system consisting of three levels. During the feeding process, the components are mixed before going directly to the production line.
The mixture is allowed to stand for one day, and then melted, amenable to the homogenization process and applied to a reinforcement base. Next, the outer layers of the membrane are created by coextrusion.
After going through the stabilization and cooling process, the membrane is cut into strips and rolled into rolls.
Each batch produced is subjected to thorough laboratory testing for compliance with the declared qualities and material requirements:
Operations are performed in automated mode. A regulatory document that regulates the quality of membranes - GOST 56704-2015.
Membrane is a material in which a central layer of reinforcement and polyester, fiberglass and fiberglass is coated on both sides with modified polymers. The thickness of the waterproofing membrane is 0.
4 - 2 mm. The bottom layer is created in a different color. This is done in order to make timely repairs in the event of a defect or leak.
Membrane waterproofing properties:
Group of flammability of the film G1-G3, and it depends on the purpose of use. For example, swimming pool waterproofing membranes are manufactured with the ability to resist fading in the sun.
Note. In case of damage to the waterproofing membrane during installation or during operation, repair work is carried out without much difficulty.
Restoration can be carried out throughout the entire period of service, since the material retains its original qualities for a long time
Note. Polymer membranes are classified as waterproofing, which must be installed, and bitumen films are classified as weldable.
Materials based on bitumen have long been widespread and are considered the most widespread, as they say, time-tested quality. Polymeric waterproofing membranes are just beginning to conquer their niche in the field of building materials, and are several times superior to bituminous films in such qualities as: ease of installation, lightness, reliability and durability, incombustibility and environmental friendliness.
Note. For waterproofing the foundation, two systems are used: profiled and film.
The film system can be used when a low level of groundwater is detected. It is used to drain rain and melt water, possible unintentional runoff. For better adhesion with mortar for building, a corrugated system is organized.
The waterproofing profiled membrane for the foundation is used in case of high groundwater or pressure, as well as flooding that occurs with a certain frequency. The membrane, packaged in rolls, is made of high density polyethylene and reinforced with convex hollow pins inside. It is this shape that makes it possible to divert groundwater in a certain direction, creating an air layer between the insulation and the concrete, thereby protecting it from pushing through.
The profiled film is produced with an auxiliary layer of geotextile and a sliding floor, which have the function of preventing the formation of deformations during the movement of heaving soils. Installation of a waterproofing membrane is possible as a substrate under a monolithic foundation by installing reinforcement frames directly on a polymer coating.
To choose the right waterproofing membrane for foundations and basements, it is necessary to take into account the depth of formation of the base under the building:
Note. The thicker membrane is able to withstand heavy loads.
Insulation of the base of the house with a membrane can be carried out both at the construction stage and at the end.
The main thing in this business is to ensure free access to structures. The width of the trench is equipped at a level of at least 80 cm - 1 m. In the future, it is necessary to carry out the process of cleaning and leveling the surface in order to get rid of sharp edges and protrusions that can damage the membrane.
There is no need to prepare the base of the building before installing the elastic waterproofing membrane. The membrane is secured with strips that can hang freely.
The exception in this case are double-layer systems.
The functional purpose of foundation membranes is direct protection against groundwater, the impact of an aggressive environment of external atmospheric precipitation, which often contain alkali and acids that negatively affect the base material.
Roofing material and bitumen are losing their positions in the construction industry, since they all have butt joints that deform over time, and moisture begins gradually penetrate into the structure. There is a violation of the mineral composition of concrete, and the material begins to collapse. It is for waterproofing membranes that the future lies, until, of course, more minds come up with materials with even better qualities.
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