A well-laid foundation is the key to a long service life of the premises, therefore a foundation that has been filled correctly will serve you for a long time ...
If the installation technology is violated, this can be deplorable, and as a result, the structure may be completely or partially destroyed. Sometimes the problem can be solved without the help of specialists, and thereby minimize the aggravation of the situation.
Why is the integrity of the foundation violated?
There can be many reasons, but they are all divided into two main groups. The first is the loss of bearing capacity, which is directly related to the weakening of the ground, which is the support.
The destruction of the foundation can occur due to poor quality installation or under the influence of factors that have a negative impact ...
|Root causes of base failure|
|Decrease in the quality of the bearing capacity of the earth||Reasons - undermining or flooding. The soil is oversaturated with moisture, and its characteristic properties are reduced by an order of magnitude.|
|The formation of voids in the soil||The main reason is flushing, but the process itself has a different order. The bearing capacity of the earth does not decrease, and over time, a void appears under the structure, due to which the basement collapses over time.|
|The presence in the soil of substances that destroy the base|| The main destroyers of the foundation are in the soil, usually limestone and marl, which act at the molecular level.
|"working"||A void under the ground, which can form in areas nearby near mines, places of water intake, oil wells.|
|Groundwater and their negative impact||When interacting with water, the process of oxidation of metals occurs, therefore, even if the bearing capacity indicator does not go into negative territory, the base may collapse. Water with acidic and alkaline impurities deserves special attention.|
|Violation of installation technology|| There are enough reasons in this case, but the main one is considered to be an error in determining the depth of the laying, which is explained by the owner's savings. Another popular reason may be pouring the strip foundation with your own hands, in which cinder concrete or silicate bricks are used together with a high-quality mixture, which are unsuitable for reinforcing the base of the house.
Before thinking about the question of how to reconstruct the foundation of a wooden house, analyze what exactly could cause deformation and determine the nature of the defects.
There are many different types of deformation that directly affect the life of a building. The main ones are:
Since the top element is exposed to harsh conditions, the timber rots and collapses in a short time.
Often the destruction of the base occurs due to improper laying - the blocks crack and fall out of the overall structure.
Usually this phenomenon appears in the first winter after construction.
It occurs due to the strong heaving of the soil.
Attention: since there are many possible causes and they are similar to each other, you will have to perform a number of research works to identify the root cause in order to further eliminate it.
Since there are many methods of reconstruction of the old foundation, you need to know exactly what we are fighting with.
For this, we will look for the reason by performing a series of actions and operations. This will be required in order to exclude the fact of the formation of deformation due to a single case, which will not repeat in the future.
For example, a snowy winter with a lot of rainfall can increase the pressure on the base. In this case, redecoration is acceptable. In other cases, more complex repairs will be required.
The principle of observation is to make sure that the emerging crack and its size are unchanged. To do this, use special beacons, which are made of gypsum plaster and applied to the crack. The thickness of the lighthouse should not be more than 2 cm, and the length - 10 cm.We set the middle of the lighthouse strictly in the center of the crack. Note that the surface must be thoroughly cleaned to connect to the surface.
Place two poppies at the end and beginning of the crack structure, enter the date and quantity in a notebook and wait, checking the condition every day.
Important: Check the status at regular intervals and take notes. If the lighthouses burst, and the crack continues to grow, you can predict the possibility of destruction and take measures to reconstruct the foundation with piles.
Using this method, you will get much more information, but it is more difficult to implement. For him, you will need to dig several pits (simple holes) near the base.
In size, they should be up to the depth of the base, and about 100 cm in length. The width in this case is an exclusively individual measure, and is only related to the convenience of work. To eliminate the possibility of a collapse, make a wooden formwork.
When reconstructing the foundation of a house, install pits in the most problematic areas. Inside the pit, it will be possible to determine the condition of the foundation, foundations, the integrity and quality of waterproofing, determine the level of groundwater and soles and take soil samples to analyze for alkalis and acids (you can do this at home if you buy a special kit).
Now that you have identified the negative factor, you can start repair work.
If you take into account all the special repairs of the strip-type foundation, you can do everything yourself. This type of warp is the most popular when building housing, so you should start with it. The main reason for reconstruction is considered to be the presence of cracks on the surface.
They can appear for the following reasons:
Even a small crack requires the owner's attention and restoration. This is due to the fact that moisture gets inside and under its influence the foundation will gradually be destroyed. It is very dangerous during the winter.
Attention: it is worth noting separately that if cracks appear, in no case should you dig under the base, since in this place the soil may sink, and the base will crack further.
Repair that associated with sealing the cracks that have appeared, can be done in two ways, the first of which involves putty. The second method uses cement mortar.First, you need to clean up all the flaws, and then inject the mixture, which is prepared by mixing cement and sand in a 1: 2 ratio. We rub the finished surface, slightly moistening it with water, and after everything has hardened, you can paint the surface.
Repair of the foundation, which is periodically flooded, is carried out by installing new drainage, which will be needed to drain water from the walls of the house.
If it is difficult to do this, limit yourself to a bump barrier, which will direct water along the groove, or a blind area, the width of which will be more than 80 cm.
If a crack appeared due to the installation of the base above the freezing level of the earth, you will need to repair the tape foundation, namely - to insulate it. To do this, a groove is dug near the basement, which is covered with wet sand. The upper part is covered with thermal insulation, and then a blind area is made.
When the destruction has reached significant proportions, a major reconstruction will be required.
In this case, a groove should be dug by analogy with the method described above, the old surface should be cleaned from plaster and waterproofing and treated with a primer.
Next, at a distance of 85-110 cm from each other, drill holes into which the reinforcement will be inserted. Make three to five rows of such pins. Cover the surface to be repaired with a frame made of reinforcement, and then make a formwork and fill it with a new layer. After hardening, make a blind area.
Methods of reconstruction of the foundation are various, and one of them should be used when the base pillars are sloping. Such a problem can arise due to improper installation or ground heaving. New supports should be made very often.
Below, we enclose detailed instructions for performing repair work on a pillar foundation:
For these purposes, use a wooden beam no less than 20 cm thick, and preferably a brick. After the preparation is over, the corner of the house is lifted with a jack and installed on temporary supports. When installing, consider in advance that the support does not interfere with the installation of new posts.
2 cm (preferably larger). The maximum mesh size should not be more than 200 * 200 mm. You think over the height of the structure yourself, since everything depends on the old foundation.
Then we leave it to harden for a couple of days so that the composition gains strength.
Important: when lifting a house with a jack, take into account the likelihood of skewing or cracking of the walls, therefore it is better to raise the house using not one, but several mechanisms and at large intervals.
It is quite often necessary to use the reconstruction of the foundation of the house, which has been askew from time to time. Most often this happens with a building that is located on a rubble or brick base.
This is due to the fact that materials often crack and create deep cracks, which significantly destroys the base.
Ideally, for the repair of such a structure, change the old coating on the destroyed area to a monolithic slab of concrete.
The reconstruction process is relevant only for the most popular problems with the house and its foundation.
But keep in mind that each situation requires certain measures related to repair. And do not forget that even two houses located next to each other can deform for completely different reasons.
So, so that your house does not undergo another destruction after the renovation, thoroughly conduct analysis and laboratory studies of the soil, as this is directly related to the strengthening and repair of the floor basement.
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