Hip roof is the most popular because it has high strength properties and characteristics, long service life and beautiful appearance.
A hip roof will be an ideal choice when arranging a residential attic space, as it greatly simplifies the procedure for installing skylights.
In addition, the hip roof has a streamlined shape. And due to this, it does not deform as much from external wind loads as other structures.
At the hip roof, the ridge is not blown up by gusts of strong wind. And this indicator is ideal for installing a roof in southern areas with strong gusty winds.
The hip roof has four slopes. Two slopes - side, like a classic standard roof. And the two remaining ramps are located between the previous two. And unlike the hipped roof, the hip roof has not one peak, but two. And these peaks are connected with a ridge.
The vertical pediments are inclined in the form of triangular slopes. They are called hips.
Hip roof consists of the following main units:
Ridge bar. This element is the highest point of the roof and its main bearing axis. At this point, all the faces are connected.
When erecting a hip roof, most often the center of the ridge will coincide with the center of the roofing.
Corner rafters. As a rule, the rafter legs act as basic strength parts and connect the ridge beam and the corners of the entire structure. Cut them out of boards, the thickness of which should be equal to the thickness of the ridge. The rafter legs are fixed to the ridge with one end, and with the other they go beyond the boundaries of the frame house.
Short rafters. They are different in length, but they always come out at the same angle. Their number will depend on the roof area. The short type rafters are connected at one end with special corner rafter legs. And with the other end they lean on the Mauerlat or the corner of the house, and are not fixed to the ridge.
Ordinary frame. Intermediate center rafters are installed at the ends of the ridge beam and lead out onto the load-bearing walls of the house. There are six of them, three on each side.
Intermediate frame . Rafters of an intermediate type start on the ridge, and with the second part they rest on the Mauerlat.
And they are not installed on the hips.
Types of hip roofs
Below we will consider which there are types of hip roofs.If the roof structure with a hip breaks off slightly above the level of the side slopes, then this roof is usually called Dutch. Or it has another name - Danish roof. This design is much more difficult to build than the standard classic hip.
Although old houses with such a roof for dozens of years, and sometimes even longer, stand without any visible changes.
There are also hip-roofed hip roofs, their slopes are of the same shape. All hips form the same angle. This type of roof is suitable for square-shaped country houses.
There are also different hip roof slopes.
The entire structure will consist of slopes of different sizes, which will diverge at different angles. Complex broken hip roofs are quite rare.
The installation of a hip roof must begin with the design of this structure.
With a properly designed scheme, you can assemble it yourself without involving any specialists.
Do-it-yourself roof rafter system and its calculation
The rafter system of the hip roof and its calculation is the main work.
All rafters must necessarily withstand the roofing building material, external loads created by wind, snow and rain. And when calculating, it is necessary to take into account the weight of building materials used in the creation of roofing and exterior decoration.
For this work, prepare a special measuring rod and first apply all the markings and markings on it.
With this, you can avoid inaccurate measurements. To release the rail, use a sheet of plywood that is 5 cm wide.
Also prepare a table indicating the ratio of the length and placement of rafter legs to achieve higher accuracy when measuring.
Perform all calculations according to the following scheme:
The length of the rafter legs is equal to the product of the corresponding coefficient.
The axis must be marked out from the end of the house. This must be done strictly along the upper harness.
It is necessary to calculate half the width of the ridge and find out the position of the first element of the rafter system.
Place the end of the staff against the marked line. Place the other end along the line of the side wall of the house. In the resulting marked place will be the position of the intermediate rafter leg.
In order to find out the length of the rafters, one end of the timber must be installed on the roof overhang, and the remaining end must be placed on the outer corner of the load-bearing wall of the house.
To position the central rafters, you need to move the measuring rod to the edge of the wall of the house, and leave the appropriate marks on it.
The same actions must be carried out at three corners of the house.
This is how the placement of the roof ridge and the ends of the intermediate rafter legs is determined:
In order to calculate the angle of inclination of the four-slope hip roof, do the following:
Measure the horizontal projection of one intermediate rafter leg using a measuring rod.
Determine the appropriate roof angle from the table. Perform the product of these indicators.
Measure the length of the rafters from the point where the support is attached to the ridge.
Determine the overhang length in the same way. Make the product of the required coefficient by the horizontal projection.
We install the rafter system
When installing the system of hinged and diagonal rafter legs, the following instructions must be observed:
Slant-type rafters are attached to the inner corners of the walls of the house, and diagonal rafters are attached to the outer corners.
The shortened rafters of the slopes rest on the rafter feet. They call them monks.
They are released paired from two legs.
Supports are installed under the diagonal rafters - one or two. For their preparation, racks of timber are used. The braces are positioned at an angle of 45 °.
The rafter legs of the intermediate type rest on the bottom of the Mauerlat, and on top of the ridge beam.
When assembling and installing them, it is necessary to adhere to a step of 1.2 m. And the rafter legs of the intermediate type should not be long.
Every second rafters are attached to the load-bearing wall of the house using twists. The intermediate frame is connected to the Mauerlat.
Using the back brace for this process.
Rafters of the angular type are also called rafters or half-legs, since they are of a shortened length. On one edge, the wives lean on the Mauerlat, on the other, on a diagonal leg. In order for the load to be evenly located, the women are fixed to the diagonal rafters in various places, according to the hip roof scheme.
To evenly position all rafters, mark the ridge bar.
The main point in the release of the rafter system is the competent connection of all elements and parts at the intersection of the central and diagonal rafters.
Lathing and reinforcement of the hip roof
For the durability of the hip roof and its reliability, it is not enough just to make a strong rafter system.
It is necessary to strengthen it as follows:
A sprengel is placed in each corner for reinforcement - that is, a bar that is thrown between the Mauerlat's shoulders and forming an angle. These racks will be designed for diagonal rafter legs. If the sprengel is located far from the corner, attach a truss to it.
The racks are installed on the ceiling, and connected from above with a bar. It will act as a real support for the rafters.And it will provide an even distribution of the load on the whole house. These racks serve as shelves.
For long diagonal rafters, double beams should be used instead of single beams.
Use wooden planks to make the battens. For this purpose, bars with a section of 50x50 mm are also suitable.
All wood and lumber must be pretreated with a special protective compound (impregnations and antiseptics), and then dry thoroughly. And do not take raw boards for work, they will cause deformation of the roofing outer covering.
Place the battens perpendicular to the rafter legs.
And place the rafters themselves in a continuous layer. Or install them in 15 cm increments. The cladding options depend on the type of roofing building material.
Arrangement and installation of the roofing cake
After installing the sheathing on the roof of the hip roof, you can start arranging the roofing cake.
To do this, you need the following:
Before starting work, lay a waterproofing layer of building material to prevent the penetration of water and moisture.
Also, a layer of waterproofing will help you avoid condensation. Attach the protective layer to the rafters using a construction stapler. Reinforce the entire structure with a control lathing on top, not forgetting about the left gaps between the roofing and waterproofing building material to create natural ventilation.
Place vapor and thermal insulation building materials in order to create an attic space in the future. And immediately determine its purpose, and how it will be in the future - warm or cold.
If the attic is cold, insulate the floor. In the case of a warm loft, insulate the roof in addition to the floor as well. Place the insulation between the rafters.
Place a vapor barrier building material under the insulation. Place it with an overlap.
And when buying a vapor barrier, count on a high consumption of this material.
When buying a roofing building material, consider its appearance, its strength properties and characteristics, indicators of durability and reliability. And pay your attention to the weather conditions in your area and the angle of the roof.
Hip roof is a standard classic construction and will look great with clay tiles that will not warp or fade.
The roofing of the roof with metal tiles has a budgetary cost, is characterized by a fairly simple installation and installation, and is characterized by increased resistance to various damages.
Sheet versions of metal profile roofing building materials can be used. Copper can be used to achieve the original look of the hip roof. This is a rather expensive material, and it will increase the price of a hip roof several times.But on the other hand, its cost will be justified by environmentally friendly material and high endurance.
Hip roofs are widespread.
And if you decide to start building a small country house, then this roof option is for you.
Hip roof is the ideal choice for original architecture with different elevations and ledges. In addition, the hip roof is ideal for the construction of the attic floor.