Frame construction is very popular in the world, regardless of climatic conditions. The technology has become widespread, in particular, due to the fact that, having sandwich panels , it is possible to build warm housing in just the summer. Frame houses are especially popular in countries such as the USA and Japan. The technology has stood the test of time and has been in use on the Scandinavian Peninsula for five centuries.
Sandwich panels conquer the construction market
The word " sandwich " in English refers to a sandwich made of several layers with bread on top and bottom.
In construction, it is a material of a special design, which is used to obtain various structural elements. In the literature, the term SIP panels is also found - from the English abbreviation SIP (Structural insulated panel) . The base, or frame, is made of insulation, which is covered on both sides with sheets of rigid material.
Sandwich panels have the following advantages over their competitors:
Less thermal energy is required to heat a building from sandwich panels
But the material also has disadvantages:
Houses made of SIP panels are always low-rise
The scope of SIP is quite wide. It is used in combination with other materials - for example, for superstructures on existing buildings, as well as for the construction of garages, warehouses, shopping and office centers, etc.
The outer layer of SIP-panels is represented by the following materials:
The thickness of one plate is 9-12 mm .
The following is used as a heater:
Table 1. Thermal conductivity depending on the type of filler
|Type of filler||Thermal conductivity, W / (m * ° С)|
|Expanded polystyrene|| 0.037 .. |
|Mineral wool||0.047… 0.07|
The more severe the climate, the lower the material should have.
Attention! When choosing a building material, one must pay attention to quality - it should not be toxic or flammable. So, in developed countries (Japan, EU countries, USA) plates with formaldehyde emission levels not lower than the first class are used.
Several types of sandwich panels are in demand in construction:
Therefore, more slabs are required for construction, which increases the number of joints. In addition, fibrolite is quite heavy.
Sandwich panels: advantages and disadvantages
There are other types of SIP panels, but they are according to technical characteristics lose to the listed products. For example, plasterboard with insulation is produced for internal partitions. Those made of steel or fibreboard are mainly used for the construction of workshops and commercial buildings.
LSU panel made of glass magnesite
Attention! According to experts, panels with basalt additives retain heat worse than homogeneous materials.
In addition to modern materials, reeds and sawdust are fillers.
Although they are environmentally friendly, they are inferior to synthetic counterparts in terms of performance.
SIP panels with an outer layer of OSB-3 12 cm thick are most popular in the construction of houses. They are intended for load-bearing structures and are resistant to operation in high humidity conditions.
Table 2. Basic dimensions of sandwich panels
|Width|| 62. |
|Thickness|| 11.0, 12. |
0, 17.0, 20.0, 22.0, 27.0
Building material has become so popular that it is now produced not only for walls and ceilings, but also for other structural elements of the building.
SIP panels began to be used for roof construction. The material has gained popularity in this area because it is a ready-made roofing cake. If you use this design, then even additional insulation is not required. Under such a roof, you can arrange a fairly warm attic.
The frame of the roofing sandwich panel is formed by sheet steel.
Sheets are galvanized and coated with polymer materials, which not only give an aesthetic appearance, but also protect the metal from moisture and other adverse conditions that cause corrosion. Both expanded polystyrene and mineral wool are used as insulation. The roof made of SIP panels withstands snow caps and strong winds.
Individual roof elements are fastened to each other with locks ROOF-LOCK . They provide an airtight connection and do not allow leakage at the joints.
Roof sandwich panel
SIP-panels for roofs are gaining popularity for the following reasons:
Table 3. Characteristics and dimensions
Number of layers 3 Width 1000 mm Thickness 40-160 mm Stiffening ribs height 40 mm Total panel weight Up to 40 kg / m2
Important! The slope of the roof, where it is planned to erect such a roof, must be at least 5-7 °.
Use of sandwich panels
SIP panels are increasingly used for the installation of window slopes. They have the following design:
The F-shaped profile is fixed to the inner edge of the window slope - it covers the end of the structure. For this reason, there is no need to re-glue the wallpaper after installation. Under this profile lies a rail that adjoins the U-shaped profile. The construction rests on it.
In this case, the metal-plastic window protects as much as possible from street noise and drafts.
When using such a finish, double-glazed windows can last 20-30 years without major repairs.
Builders note the following advantages of the material:
This material is easier to work with as it does not crumble or generate much debris.
The face of the panel is usually coated with a material that can be washed, but no abrasive cleaners.
SIP-panel for slope
But the use of this material on slopes has a number of disadvantages. So, if the side is sunny, and the coating is of poor quality, the possibility of deformation of the top coating is not excluded. White plastic under the influence of sunlight turns yellow over time, which impairs the appearance of the window.
Installation of the structure is performed in the following sequence:
Measure the window along the contour.
Step 2. Cut pieces of the required size from the sandwich panels.
Step 3. A U-shaped profile is attached to the edge of the window frame.
Step 4. Mount the sandwich panel.
Step 5. Pour foam into the gap between the wall and the panel.
Step 6 .
An F-shaped profile is installed on the edges of the window.
When buying a new SIP-panel, the seller should ask for a certificate of conformity. If he does not have this, it is better to look for a suitable product elsewhere.
Before starting the installation prepare a layout scheme for the selected type of material. Particular attention is paid to the location of the locks.
Slope of sandwich panels
The panels are inspected in order to identify damage and corrosion in time. If there are such places, the material is processed or replaced with another panel. Sheets on which chips are peeling off, noticeable looseness, are not suitable for work. They work carefully with the butt elements so that later there is no leakage of the connections.
Since the panels are produced in the same sizes, they will have to be cut.
For this, only cold methods are used: high temperatures can damage the insulating material or filler, and the service life of the structure is reduced. The inner and outer panels are not cut at the same time, but alternately.
Depending on the material of manufacture, the following tools are used:
To make the cut even, the panel is fixed, a clear marking of the sheet is made.
The face layer is always cut first.
Attention! Grinder and other tools with high cutting speed are not recommended. They are capable of igniting the insulation and violating the integrity of the protective coating.
Construction of a house from sandwich panels can often be carried out by the future residents themselves, if they have at least the initial skills in construction.
The process consists of the following stages:
A suitable option is chosen depending on the terrain and the nature of the soil. One of the most popular options is considered to be a foundation on screw piles. Its advantages are the ability to erect the base of the building in 1-2 days and the affordable cost of materials and work.
When building on a screw foundation, wooden beams are placed on top of the piles.
Laying the floor from SIP panels
First, the lower harness is laid. Then the walls themselves are assembled from sandwich sheets and a wooden frame. After the external walls are installed, the internal floors are made. At the final stage of the first stage, the upper harness is laid.
Elements of the frame house
Attention ! Panels are installed from the corner of the frame.
Since the first sheet is a guide for everyone else, it is carefully placed under the level.
Since sandwich panels have a smooth, even surface, finishing the house becomes cheaper and takes less time. So, inside it is enough to paste over the walls with wallpaper.
Another building that can be built from sandwich panels is a garage.
Approximate drawing of a garage
A screw foundation is also sufficient for the construction of a room.
But in this variant it is impossible to build a viewing pit. If it is necessary, then the foundation should be tape.
Stages of building a garage:
Installing the strip and low tide
Hangars and warehouses are built in a similar way.
For the construction of such premises, used SIP panels are also used, if their operational characteristics are preserved.
Since the material is very popular, there were craftsmen who learned how to make it "handicraft methods" at home. On the one hand, the design is pretty simple.
On the other hand, there are many subtleties that beginners do not know about.
To make the panel, you will need:
There are two types of glue - one-component and two-component. One-component adhesive mixtures harden on contact with air.
Two-component analogs are composed of a polyol component and an isocyanate activator and harden when these substances react with each other.
Attention! For home production, it is recommended to use one-component adhesives. Experts say that two-component adhesives are only effective in fully automated production.
The following requirements are imposed on the glue:
The technological process looks like this:
Thermal insulation materials
Polyurethane glue is applied very quickly, as it dries quickly, after which it cannot be dissolved by any products. It softens only under the influence of a temperature of 300-500 ° C, but at home it is impossible to heat the workpiece to such an extent. To ensure the required speed of work, you need an assistant.
Attention! The curing time of the adhesive is prolonged if the panels are assembled in a dry and cool room.
As mentioned, at the last stage, the self-made SIP is sent under the press. The pressure across the entire surface should be about 300 g / m2. To do this, use a press - as a rule, a manual lingering, folding the finished panels one on top of the other. If there is no such mechanism, they resort to using a vacuum pump:
The lock between the panels is made using beams. To do this, on one side along the length, a bar is laid along the thickness of the panel, on the other side, a heater is cut to a depth corresponding to the entry of the bar.
Lock in panels
SIP-panels - a convenient, modern building material.
If handled correctly, it can be used to build energy efficient and durable housing, and at a reasonable price.
Posted By: Work Style |03, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |12, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |05, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |02, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |09, Nov 2020