Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

Frame construction is very popular in the world, regardless of climatic conditions. The technology has become widespread, in particular, due to the fact that, having sandwich panels , it is possible to build warm housing in just the summer. Frame houses are especially popular in countries such as the USA and Japan. The technology has stood the test of time and has been in use on the Scandinavian Peninsula for five centuries.

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

Sandwich panels conquer the construction market

What are sandwich panels?

The word " sandwich " in English refers to a sandwich made of several layers with bread on top and bottom.

In construction, it is a material of a special design, which is used to obtain various structural elements. In the literature, the term SIP panels is also found - from the English abbreviation SIP (Structural insulated panel) . The base, or frame, is made of insulation, which is covered on both sides with sheets of rigid material.

Sandwich panels have the following advantages over their competitors:

  • relatively low weight, which reduces the load on the foundation;
  • high level of thermal insulation - heat saving by 10 times better than brick, and 3 times better than wood;
  • protection of the room from external noise;
  • do not shrink, so finishing can be started immediately after completion of construction;
  • lower energy consumption in winter;
  • easy dismantling of individual plates and the possibility of replacing them or moving them to another place;
  • fire resistance, since modern panels often use non-combustible materials that slow the spread of fire , which allows the evacuation of residents.

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

Less thermal energy is required to heat a building from sandwich panels

But the material also has disadvantages:

  • sandwich panels cannot match the strength of concrete and masonry, so they are damaged by a strong impact;
  • cheap materials may contain toxic and carcinogenic substances that pose a health hazard;
  • when constructing buildings, proper sealing is needed, it is required to monitor it during operation: otherwise the walls will freeze through;
  • panels do not always make it possible to build complex architectural forms;
  • occurs indoors greenhouse effect, therefore forced or natural ventilation is needed;
  • there should not be heavy shelves or other similar hanging elements on the walls;
  • in such buildings there are only a few floors, one of the tallest buildings from the self-supporting insulated wire panels - six-story in Japan.

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

Houses made of SIP panels are always low-rise

The scope of SIP is quite wide. It is used in combination with other materials - for example, for superstructures on existing buildings, as well as for the construction of garages, warehouses, shopping and office centers, etc.

SIP-panels materials

The outer layer of SIP-panels is represented by the following materials:

  • oriented strand boards, or OSB;
  • fibreboard, or fiberboard;
  • stone panels;
  • wood boards.

The thickness of one plate is 9-12 mm .

The following is used as a heater:

  • expanded polystyrene;
  • polyurethane foam;
  • mineral wool.

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

SIP device

Table 1. Thermal conductivity depending on the type of filler

Type of filler Thermal conductivity, W / (m * ° С)
Polyurethane foam 0.028
Expanded polystyrene 0.037 ..

. 0.04

Mineral wool 0.047… 0.07

The more severe the climate, the lower the material should have.

Attention! When choosing a building material, one must pay attention to quality - it should not be toxic or flammable. So, in developed countries (Japan, EU countries, USA) plates with formaldehyde emission levels not lower than the first class are used.

Several types of sandwich panels are in demand in construction:

  • OSB, expanded polystyrene - has maximum strength, is popular in building construction.
  • OSB and polyurethane foam are used in industrial production, in Europe and the USA - in residential. In Russia, panels of this design are less common.

  • OSB and mineral wool - these products are popular mainly in Russia. The use of this type of insulation makes SIP available to a wide range of consumers. At the same time, the quality also suffers, since the mineral wool settles over time.
  • Fibrolite and expanded polystyrene is another Russian development. The disadvantage of such a panel is that it is only 60 cm wide.

    Therefore, more slabs are required for construction, which increases the number of joints. In addition, fibrolite is quite heavy.

  • Glass magnesite and expanded polystyrene - an innovative material in frame construction, which are also called stone SIP panels. These products are considered the safest for health and the environment. Such panels are suitable for the construction of external and internal walls, especially in swimming pools, saunas, as well as near fireplaces.

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

Sandwich panels: advantages and disadvantages

There are other types of SIP panels, but they are according to technical characteristics lose to the listed products. For example, plasterboard with insulation is produced for internal partitions. Those made of steel or fibreboard are mainly used for the construction of workshops and commercial buildings.

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

LSU panel made of glass magnesite

Attention! According to experts, panels with basalt additives retain heat worse than homogeneous materials.

In addition to modern materials, reeds and sawdust are fillers.

Although they are environmentally friendly, they are inferior to synthetic counterparts in terms of performance.

SIP panels with an outer layer of OSB-3 12 cm thick are most popular in the construction of houses. They are intended for load-bearing structures and are resistant to operation in high humidity conditions.

Table 2. Basic dimensions of sandwich panels

Parameter Indicator, cm
Width 62.

5-125.0

Length 250.0- 280.0
Thickness 11.0, 12.

0, 17.0, 20.0, 22.0, 27.0

Prices for sandwich panels

Sandwich panels

Other types of sandwich panels

Building material has become so popular that it is now produced not only for walls and ceilings, but also for other structural elements of the building.

Roofing sandwich panels

SIP panels began to be used for roof construction. The material has gained popularity in this area because it is a ready-made roofing cake. If you use this design, then even additional insulation is not required. Under such a roof, you can arrange a fairly warm attic.

The frame of the roofing sandwich panel is formed by sheet steel.

Sheets are galvanized and coated with polymer materials, which not only give an aesthetic appearance, but also protect the metal from moisture and other adverse conditions that cause corrosion. Both expanded polystyrene and mineral wool are used as insulation. The roof made of SIP panels withstands snow caps and strong winds.

Individual roof elements are fastened to each other with locks ROOF-LOCK . They provide an airtight connection and do not allow leakage at the joints.

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

Roof sandwich panel

SIP-panels for roofs are gaining popularity for the following reasons:

  • attractive exterior;
  • long service life;
  • resistance to external influences caused by climatic conditions;
  • good protection against noise;
  • low thermal conductivity.

Table 3. Characteristics and dimensions

Name Indicator
Number of layers 3
Width 1000 mm
Thickness 40-160 mm
Stiffening ribs height 40 mm
Total panel weight Up to 40 kg / m2

Important! The slope of the roof, where it is planned to erect such a roof, must be at least 5-7 °.

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

Use of sandwich panels

Sandwich panels for window slopes

SIP panels are increasingly used for the installation of window slopes. They have the following design:

  • external decorative panel;
  • polystyrene layer as insulation;
  • wooden guide rail;
  • profile F and P -shaped.

The F-shaped profile is fixed to the inner edge of the window slope - it covers the end of the structure. For this reason, there is no need to re-glue the wallpaper after installation. Under this profile lies a rail that adjoins the U-shaped profile. The construction rests on it.

In this case, the metal-plastic window protects as much as possible from street noise and drafts.

When using such a finish, double-glazed windows can last 20-30 years without major repairs.

Builders note the following advantages of the material:

  • weight up to 1.7 kg / m2, while for gypsum plasterboard (12.5 mm) - up to 10 kg / m2 ;
  • thermal insulation is at least 20% higher than that of gypsum board.

This material is easier to work with as it does not crumble or generate much debris.

The face of the panel is usually coated with a material that can be washed, but no abrasive cleaners.

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

SIP-panel for slope

But the use of this material on slopes has a number of disadvantages. So, if the side is sunny, and the coating is of poor quality, the possibility of deformation of the top coating is not excluded. White plastic under the influence of sunlight turns yellow over time, which impairs the appearance of the window.

Installation of the slope - step-by-step instructions

Installation of the structure is performed in the following sequence:

Step 1.

Measure the window along the contour.

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

Step 2. Cut pieces of the required size from the sandwich panels.

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

Step 3. A U-shaped profile is attached to the edge of the window frame.

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

Step 4. Mount the sandwich panel.

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

Step 5. Pour foam into the gap between the wall and the panel.

Polyurethane sealant prices

Polyurethane sealant

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

Step 6 .

An F-shaped profile is installed on the edges of the window.

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

Preparing panels for work

When buying a new SIP-panel, the seller should ask for a certificate of conformity. If he does not have this, it is better to look for a suitable product elsewhere.

Before starting the installation prepare a layout scheme for the selected type of material. Particular attention is paid to the location of the locks.

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

Slope of sandwich panels

The panels are inspected in order to identify damage and corrosion in time. If there are such places, the material is processed or replaced with another panel. Sheets on which chips are peeling off, noticeable looseness, are not suitable for work. They work carefully with the butt elements so that later there is no leakage of the connections.

Since the panels are produced in the same sizes, they will have to be cut.

For this, only cold methods are used: high temperatures can damage the insulating material or filler, and the service life of the structure is reduced. The inner and outer panels are not cut at the same time, but alternately.

Depending on the material of manufacture, the following tools are used:

  • polymer (plastisol, pural, etc.) - jigsaw, construction knife;
  • OSB, drywall, metal - band or circular saw;
  • metal - press guillotine.

To make the cut even, the panel is fixed, a clear marking of the sheet is made.

The face layer is always cut first.

Attention! Grinder and other tools with high cutting speed are not recommended. They are capable of igniting the insulation and violating the integrity of the protective coating.

House from sandwich panels

Construction of a house from sandwich panels can often be carried out by the future residents themselves, if they have at least the initial skills in construction.

The process consists of the following stages:

  • Foundation construction.

    A suitable option is chosen depending on the terrain and the nature of the soil. One of the most popular options is considered to be a foundation on screw piles. Its advantages are the ability to erect the base of the building in 1-2 days and the affordable cost of materials and work.

  • Waterproofing wooden parts with roofing felt or other similar materials.
  • Installing the bottom rail on which the floor is laid.

    When building on a screw foundation, wooden beams are placed on top of the piles.

  • Laying the floor. The front side of the SIP is treated with bituminous mastic. SIP sheets are laid out around the perimeter of the future structure.

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

Laying the floor from SIP panels

  • Assembling the outer walls of the first floor.

    First, the lower harness is laid. Then the walls themselves are assembled from sandwich sheets and a wooden frame. After the external walls are installed, the internal floors are made. At the final stage of the first stage, the upper harness is laid.

  • SIP sheets of interfloor ceilings are installed on top of the walls of the first floor in the same way as the floor of the first floor was made.

  • The walls for the next level are erected in the same way as the previous one. If the area of ​​the rooms is large, the floors between the floors are reinforced with a bar, preferably with LVL marking.
  • They make a roof from SIP panels.
  • Install windows, doors.

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

Elements of the frame house

Attention ! Panels are installed from the corner of the frame.

Since the first sheet is a guide for everyone else, it is carefully placed under the level.

Since sandwich panels have a smooth, even surface, finishing the house becomes cheaper and takes less time. So, inside it is enough to paste over the walls with wallpaper.

Video - How to choose a SIP for a cottage

Sandwich garage panels

Another building that can be built from sandwich panels is a garage.

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

Approximate drawing of a garage

A screw foundation is also sufficient for the construction of a room.

But in this variant it is impossible to build a viewing pit. If it is necessary, then the foundation should be tape.

Stages of building a garage:

  1. Build the foundation according to the selected technology. The floor is being concreted.
  2. Concrete elements are covered with waterproofing materials - for example, two layers of roofing material.

  3. They make a garage frame of metal or wood, installing from the corners, check the strength.
  4. Wood is treated with antifungal agents and antiseptics.
  5. Install vertical wall panels using self-tapping screws for their fastening at a distance of at least 5 cm from the edge, and, if necessary, metal strips.
  6. A waterproofing sealant is applied to the joints.
  7. The seams between the panels are insulated and insulated - they install a basement ebb, a strip.

  8. Install doors.

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

Installing the strip and low tide

Hangars and warehouses are built in a similar way.

For the construction of such premises, used SIP panels are also used, if their operational characteristics are preserved.

Video - DIY construction of a garage from sandwich panels

Self-production of SIP panels

Since the material is very popular, there were craftsmen who learned how to make it "handicraft methods" at home. On the one hand, the design is pretty simple.

On the other hand, there are many subtleties that beginners do not know about.

To make the panel, you will need:

  • sheathing sheets (plywood, metal profiles, etc.);
  • insulation;
  • glue.

There are two types of glue - one-component and two-component. One-component adhesive mixtures harden on contact with air.

Two-component analogs are composed of a polyol component and an isocyanate activator and harden when these substances react with each other.

Attention! For home production, it is recommended to use one-component adhesives. Experts say that two-component adhesives are only effective in fully automated production.

The following requirements are imposed on the glue:

  • durability (factory SIP-plates retain their properties for 50 years or more);
  • absence of toxic components that are harmful to health or the environment;
  • moisture resistance;
  • retention of properties over a wide temperature range from -40 to 50 ° C.

The technological process looks like this:

  1. The first sheet is laid on the floor or other flat surface.

  2. Apply a thin polyurethane adhesive. To do this, use a special spray or notched trowel.
  3. Laying insulation.
  4. Grease the second sheet with glue.
  5. With the smeared side, the second sheet is placed on the insulation.

  6. Leave the panel under the weighting compound for 2-4 hours until the adhesive is completely cured.

Prices for thermal insulation materials

Thermal insulation materials

Polyurethane glue is applied very quickly, as it dries quickly, after which it cannot be dissolved by any products. It softens only under the influence of a temperature of 300-500 ° C, but at home it is impossible to heat the workpiece to such an extent. To ensure the required speed of work, you need an assistant.

Attention! The curing time of the adhesive is prolonged if the panels are assembled in a dry and cool room.

As mentioned, at the last stage, the self-made SIP is sent under the press. The pressure across the entire surface should be about 300 g / m2. To do this, use a press - as a rule, a manual lingering, folding the finished panels one on top of the other. If there is no such mechanism, they resort to using a vacuum pump:

  1. Only the manufactured panels are covered with awning material so that an airtight package is obtained.
  2. The air is pumped out of the "package" by a vacuum pump.

  3. Leave under the awning for 40 minutes, no longer.
  4. Remove the coating and allow the panels to rest for 24 hours.

The lock between the panels is made using beams. To do this, on one side along the length, a bar is laid along the thickness of the panel, on the other side, a heater is cut to a depth corresponding to the entry of the bar.

Sandwich panels: an affordable building material for a warm home

Lock in panels

SIP-panels - a convenient, modern building material.

If handled correctly, it can be used to build energy efficient and durable housing, and at a reasonable price.

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