Autonomous septic tank for cottages without electricity - how to choose
If you try to decide which septic tank is better for a country house, provided that you live in it fickle, then you can quickly understand that there is no definite answer here.
Family budget, "productivity", features of a geological type site - this is not the whole list of selection criteria, and therefore in all individual cases something of your own will be the best solution.
But in any case, the nature of seasonal residence will already impose certain fundamental restrictions on the choice of construction. Consider how to choose a septic tank for giving a non-permanent residence without electricity.
According to the principle of operation of a septic tank, there are such varieties:
- Accumulative - if you strictly approach this issue, then it is not a septic tank, but only a container for waste collection, and its prototype is a cesspool.
Previously, there were no special requirements for the tightness of the walls and bottom of such an underground tank. At the moment, this is an extremely important condition, failure to comply with which will be prosecuted as land damage. For this reason, instead of a "hole" in the ground, you need to bury the finished container or it needs to be made of reinforced concrete (monolithic or prefabricated).
- Anaerobic - is a classic example of an underground local treatment plant, where wastewater, in the process of flowing from one chamber to another, will be separated and processed by bacteria without oxygen access. The degree of purification reaches up to 70%, and the clarified wastewater will be purified by aerobic bacteria in filtration fields, trenches or wells.
- Aerobic - the structure is built in such a way that inside the septic tank there will be a full cycle of effluent purification by aerobic bacteria up to 98%. This is a type of volatile type, because a forced air supply is required for the vital activity of microscopic organisms.
Now let's talk about the qualities of septic tanks.
Each species has certain advantages:
It will not be subject to the standards for the minimum distance from water sources, a residential building and the boundaries of a land plot - the drains are inside a sealed container for the entire period between pumping. The only drawback is the need to regularly call a sewage truck, the time phases between calls will directly depend on the volume of the septic tank and the intensity of use.You can reduce the load on it, increase the duration of work without pumping out if you divide the drains into black and gray, and drain the water from the bath, shower stall and washbasin into your drainage or filter well.
Anaerobic devices are volatile. The entire liquid component of the effluent is eventually discharged into the ground. The containers need to be cleaned only of solid fractions, which begin to settle at the bottom of the sealed chambers during the separation and processing by means of bacteria. The frequency of pumping out can range from a couple of months to 2-3 years - everything will depend on the waste volume, the number of residents and visitors, and the length of stay. This is an ideal option for a septic tank for a country house of intermittent residence without electricity (even if it is available).
But only on condition that the dimensions of the site and its plan make it possible to carry out installation without violating the requirements of standards. The main drawback is the rather strict requirements for placement regarding the intake of water, reservoirs, residential buildings and the boundaries of the site. In addition, when arranging filtration fields and wells, there are restrictions on the type of land and the depth of the groundwater type.
When electricity is turned off, aerobic bacteria die, and in order to start a septic tank, a fairly large amount of work on systemic preparation is required. There is an additional reason against interruptions in the operation of the aerobic septic tank (even if the compressor is in working order) - the death of bacteria when there are no "new" drains that contain organic matter, which will serve as a food environment for them. But this is not the main disadvantage. According to the manufacturer of septic tanks "Topas", in order to reach the design level of purification after the start of work, it takes from 2 to 3 weeks. It turns out that if they live in the country only in the summer, then it needs to be started in the spring, and turned off in the fall.
For this reason, this septic tank is not suitable for work in the winter with intermittent residence in a summer cottage, when he comes here only on weekends. For the vital activity of bacteria that live in an aerobic septic tank, a constant inflow is required - with a long break in work, the bacterial colony will need to be repopulated.
The advantage of this configuration over other options will be a higher level of performance and less load on the biological phase of purification by aerobic microscopic organisms.
But these are volatile models that have the same disadvantages as septic tanks for a country house where you live fickle.
The best septic tanks for summer cottages without electricity are metal and polymer, and in both types of septic tanks for a country house where you live inconstantly, be sure to have a container with a sealed bottom and walls.
Polymer septic tanks
If you choose among the models of the ready-made type, then septic tanks must be made of durable polymers that are not subject to corrosion and ways to withstand long-term influence aggressive environment. These include low pressure polyethylene, polypropylene and fiberglass. All factory-type containers are designed for a certain pressure both inside when filling with drains and outside as a result of ground pressure - a set of ribs and the thickness of the stiffening walls will guarantee a constant shape.
Each type of polymer has certain disadvantages, but they are not fundamental. The main common feature is the low weight of the container. Even being full, the specific gravity of the septic tank, taking into account the fractions of the solid type, does not exceed 1.1 tons / m 3 , and even the bulk density of the earth is not less than 1.5 tons / m 3 , not to mention the condensed state in its natural form.
For this reason, the heaving forces will tend to push the septic tank up, and especially if it is empty. When installing a plastic septic tank, it must be fixed to a solid base in the form of a slab of concrete. And on very heaving lands, it is recommended to backfill the pit with excavated earth, which is mixed with sand.
Please note that in any case, during a long break, the container should not be empty. The standard recommendation for the time of absence is three-quarters of the volume, so that the walls hold the earth better, and the colony of anaerobic bacteria does not die out completely.
For the station of biological purification of the sewage system for the country house of non-permanent residence, its own conservation process is provided for the winter. Everything is clearly shown in the video.
Metal septic tanks
You can use another septic tank for a summer residence without electricity. Polymer devices have replaced metal containers, but they are still found on the market.Among the offers on the construction market of metal septic tanks there are three types of containers:
Unlike polymeric ones, such containers will have a large strength reserve - the minimum metal thickness is 0.4 cm, and for tanks with a large volume from 0.8 to 1.
2 cm. But the service life metal septic tanks of a summer cottage, even if treated with an anti-corrosion type, are lower than those of plastic ones.
Reinforced concrete rings
One of the most popular materials for sewerage equipment for a summer cottage of non-permanent residence is reinforced concrete rings of the KS series. They can be of different diameters and heights, and they also allow you to make a structure with an optimal volume. The advantages are a high degree of strength and stability in the ground.
Concrete has a tendency to get wet upon prolonged contact with a humid environment, but this minus is compensated for by waterproofing surfaces. Installing a septic tank will be a little more difficult than installing a finished container. In fact, it is a reinforced concrete prefabricated structure consisting of several tanks, each of which is made of several rings (including a filtration well without a bottom with perforated walls). But in each separate region there are construction organizations that specialize in this "turnkey" service.
With the volume of a storage-type septic tank, everything is clear enough - the more, the less often you need to call a car to clean it.
And if we divide the drains into gray and black, then a tank with an average volume will be enough to give a "weekend" for the whole season. The size and shape of the storage septic tank will be dictated not only by the required capacity, but they also depend on the free space on the site, which would ensure free passage of the machine to the technological type hatch. The standard placement is somewhere in the middle between the dacha wall from the side of the sanitary unit and the border of the site, which is adjacent to the road. There are usually no problems with the depth of placement of the tank - the power of the vacuum-type pump of the sewer machine will guarantee the pumping of sewage with a depth of 4 meters.
The volume of a septic tank without pumping out will be determined by the usual formula - the number of people is multiplied by the rate of water consumption of 200 liters per day and a factor of 3 (this is the number of days that will be spent on the cycle of disinfection of effluents by bacteria).
Sometimes you can add from 20 to 25% to the "salvo" discharge upon arrival of guests.This total volume is distributed among the chambers, and for a septic tank of a two-chamber type (excluding a well for filtration), at least 2/3 is given to the first tank, and for a three-chamber at least 1/2.
No matter how simple a country septic tank may seem for a house without electricity, professionals should be engaged in its installation. Especially when it comes to anaerobic septic tank. And the difficulty is not even in installation, but in the selection of methods for soil purification of wastewater.
Experts fully take into account the geological features of the site and the filtration capacity of the soil.
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