Layout of sewerage pipes in a private house - how to properly equip
Without a well-functioning sewerage system private suburban the house can instantly transform from a comfortable and pleasant habitation into a shack of a slum. But in order for the drain in the toilet bowl and sink to function without breakdowns and correctly, and the distribution of sewer pipes in the house must be made with proper observance of the norms of the relevant SNiPs. It is extremely important that you begin to competently produce the assembly process of the riser and choose the slope of pipes to it from plumbing fixtures. It will also be important to choose the materials of tubular products and shaped parts for them.
Schemes for laying sewers in a private country house need to be worked out even at the stage when they will be produced at the stage of residential construction.
It would be best to decide in advance on the location of all pipes and plumbing in the cottage. The direct installation of the sewage pipeline with your own hands or with the involvement of plumbers will be completed after the walls are erected, but even before the start of finishing.
In order for the sewage system inside the house to function properly and blockages do not appear, it is required:
- Observe the required slope of the drain pipes from the plumbing fixtures to the riser.
- Minimize the number of bends and bends in the sewer line.
- Choose the dimensions and material of your pipe components wisely.
- Provide for the possibility of removing gases from the sewer system (waste outlet).
- Install siphons in order to form odor traps.
- In the required places, be sure to mount the hatches for cleaning and inspection.
- Thermally insulate the drainage pipe in the basement and outside (if necessary).
Please note that there are two main documents that regulate the layout of the sewerage pipeline in a suburban private house and the discharge of drains into the village sewer network or septic tank - these are SNiPs 2.
04. 01-85 ( that is, SP 30. 13330.2012) and 02.04.
03-85 (that is, SP 32. 13330.2012). It is in them that all the features of the design and installation of a system for removing waste water from a house are described.
Regardless of the number of storeys of a country cottage, a scheme for laying pipes for the sewerage system in it build around the main, that is, the vertical riser.
Horizontal drains are already being brought to it, that is, taps from plumbing fixtures. From below, to such a central pipe, it is required to connect an outlet to the street, from the septic tank or the network of the village to drain water. And from above, it is important to equip a ventilation-type fan outlet on the roof. If we are talking about a one-story house, and of the plumbing it has only a sink, a bathroom and a toilet, then you can completely abandon the riser.But keep in mind that you will still need to make a vertical pipe for ventilation, since otherwise all the unpleasant aromas from the sewer will somehow end up in the cottage, and even siphons will not save here.
Sudden changes in pressure when the water is drained can cause a breakdown of the water seal, which is why the sewer amber will begin to come out of the pipes into the sanitary unit and the kitchen.
To do the sewerage installation in your home with your own hands, you need:
It is recommended to choose pipes for the sewerage system in a private house from polypropylene or plastic, that is, PVC. The latter are cheaper, but polypropylene is more resistant to the effects of household chemicals and high temperatures. In addition, cast iron counterparts can be purchased for a summer cottage.
They are durable, however, and it is much more difficult to work with them. If you cut the plastic with the simplest hacksaw, then for cast iron you need to use a gas autogen or an angle grinder. In addition, the pressure system requires a sewage pump (installation with a small storage tank in the basement).
Schemes (real examples)
So, let's consider the schemes for laying out sewer pipes in a private house. Piping in a country house is made according to one of two schemes:
It would be better and even more correct to give preference to the first, that is, with a gravity flow movement. It is required to resort to the compulsory wiring option only as a last resort, when it is not possible to ensure the natural drainage of runoff water from the building. Such a system is volatile; if the electrical energy is turned off, the sewage system will simply stop working. The accumulator of the internal type of the pumping unit can accept a certain amount of waste water, but it is limited.
The sewerage system in the house must be assembled from bottom to top. To begin with, in the basement, it is required to make a release (output through the cottage base) in order to connect the street and indoor part of the water drainage. After that, it is important to raise the riser with installation on each floor above the floor surface of the tee or cross in order to connect the horizontal bends. It is recommended to make a stand-up turn into the outlet to the street with one bend with a knee at an angle of 90 degrees, and two at 45 degrees, or even three at 30 degrees. Such a bend will turn out to be smooth, which will reduce the risk of blockage in such a place.
The photo shows the features of the installation of pipe connections of the sewerage system of a country house.
The opening with the base is made with a size of 0.4 * 0. 4 meters and more.A free space of about 15 cm should remain from the pipe to the very edge of such a hole.
It is required so that in case of subsidence of the cottage and soil swelling in winter, the release does not turn out to be destroyed or deformed. The remaining gap will be filled with clay and tow.
Installation work on risers
Installation work consists in sequentially mounting individual elements further from each other. Connections and their fastening to each other are carried out due to the presence of a bell at the ends of such elements. From the floor on the ground floor, first you need to put a tee on the branches.
After that, the pipe will go about 1 meter high. After that, the revision is installed, and then another labor is installed for the passage of the floor to the new floor. There will be a tee again and everything will be repeated. The distance from the floor level to the inspection hatch must be between 1 and 1.5 meters.
If the pipeline is made of plastic products, then the riser must be attached to the wall using clamps on the dowels. In this case, a clearance of 0.2 meters should remain from the wall surface to the pipe. It is important to place the clamps under the sockets and at a distance from each other in terms of height of 4-5 meters.
The passage through the ceiling and the space above it after the installation of pipes must be poured with a cement mortar with a thickness of 3 cm from the pipe and a height of 10 cm above the floor surface.
Such a concrete edging is made to protect the riser, as well as to ensure noise insulation and preventing the spread of fire during a fire.
Installing elements such as bends is required at a slope from plumbing fixtures in 2.5- 3. 5 cm for each running meter. If the slope is much less, then the waste water will begin to stagnate in the sewer pipeline.
And with a lower slope, the drains will begin to flow very quickly, due to which heavy particles and fat will settle inside, gradually creating a blockage. The length of the horizon line should not be more than 10 meters. If it is laid by an open method, then the pipeline can still be made 2-3 meters larger. But for sewer pipes that are closed with a screed, this is unacceptable. And in any case, for all 8 meters of the site horizontally, it is required to provide for an audit in order to carry out cleaning.
Fixing the slope bend is carried out with clamps on the wall surface in increments of 1 to 1.5 meters. If you make this distance more, then the plastic line will begin to sag.
In a one-story type cottage, sewage pipes in a private house are usually made with one riser in the sanitary unit and two horizontal bends to the kitchen and bathroom. But if the house is huge and there are 2-3 floors, then the sewerage system scheme will be much more complicated.
Here it is often required to install a couple of separate risers.But in general, the principles for arranging the collection of household waste with plumbing devices are the same - the pipe slope and the supply of waste water at one point to the outlet from the building.
In order for the sewage system to work as best as possible for many years, it is important when designing and installing it:
- Leads with a riser must be connected not with straight crosses, but with elements with branch pipes at an angle of 35 degrees.
- For fixing individual lines under a slope, clamps are used with a pitch of no more than 1.5 meters.
- It is imperative to seal up the passage of vertical risers through ceilings with a cement mortar.
- Deburr the ends of the plastic pipes after they have been cut to the required length with a hacksaw.
- Use siphons to form hydraulic seals.
- Route the fan outlet as far as possible from balconies and windows.
According to SNiP, in a private country house, sewerage pipes can be laid hidden and open (in boxes made of non-combustible materials or mines) by methods.
The first option makes it possible to constantly monitor the state of the pipeline and, if necessary, simplify their repair work, and the second is more aesthetic. Another point and a popular mistake is the conclusion, at will, to save on a fan pipe into a simple ventilation shaft. The sewer-type air outlet and house ventilation cannot be combined, since otherwise the unpleasant smell from the sewage system will not appear on the street, but in the building itself.
The street section of the sewer pipeline will be laid more and downhill from a private country house in a dug trench. In this case, the pipe must be deepened lower than the level of ground freezing so that it does not freeze in winter.
If it is required to be laid higher, then it is important to make thermal insulation of this line. The installation of the outlet is carried out on a sand cushion with a thickness of 0.3 meters. On top and on the sides, such a pipe will be sprinkled with sand so that the stones do not press on it in any way.
The layout of plastic sewer pipes in the house around the cottage should not cause problems.
The main thing is that during installation the requirements of building codes for slope and fixing to the walls are clearly observed. When designing, such difficulties are unlikely to arise. This is for the development of an electric wiring diagram in an apartment for an electrician - it is better not for a beginner to undertake without special knowledge. There are many nuances in terms of security, as well as the choice of protective devices. But there are not so many plumbing fixtures in a country house, it is only required to supply a drain pipe for each device in the sanitary unit and the kitchen.
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