A brick is called full-bodied if it has no more than 13% of voids from the total volume. The spoon and poke should be perfectly smooth, the edges are even (GOST 530-2007). According to the regulations, solid facing brick must have the following performance indicators:
The surface of the brick should not change color under the influence of sunlight, including hard ultraviolet rays;
Terca clinker facing bricks, Futura Matrix, smooth, euro, corpulent
Facing brick (facing) red corpulent chipped
GOST 530-2007. File for download
High physical indicators of strength and excellent design make it possible to use solid facing bricks not only for finishing external walls of buildings and structures, but also for:
The brick is easy to work with, it gives even chips after being hit with a hammer, losses during transportation are minimal, and can be stored in open areas.
Thanks to high-quality surfaces, there is no need to carry out additional finishing activities - the total cost of construction work is reduced.
Facing brick solid
Front facing red brick
|Brick type||Brief characteristics|
|Made from a mixture of clay and sand, it can be used for the construction of loaded architectural structures. The surface can be smooth, matte, embossed or textured. The most expensive finishing options for front surfaces are glazing.|
| In terms of performance, it occupies a leading position during manufacturing special annealing conditions are maintained.
It has low water absorption and high density, is resistant to frost, can be used in structures with direct contact with water.
| Extra powerful presses are used for production, annealing is not used ... During manufacturing, various mineral dyes, stone or artificial chips, etc.
are added. It has a wide variety of design solutions.The disadvantage is high values of thermal conductivity and high weight. The brick is made on a cement base.
| The cheapest kind of solid bricks for facing, made of sand and lime.
Not recommended for indoor use. Persistent dyes are added to change the color.
Depending on the material of manufacture and the peculiarities of the technology, the dimensions and weight of the facing bricks change.
|Ceramic||250 * 120 * 65 mm||Up to 3.7 kg|| From 12 rubles.
|Standard clinker||250 * 120 * 65 mm||Up to 4.2 kg||From 15 rubles. /PC.|
|Clinker extended||528 * 108 * 37 mm|| Up to 3. |
|From 16 rubles. /PC.|
|Hyper-pressed||250 * 120 * 88 mm||Up to 2.0 kg|| From 11 rubles. /PC.
|Silicate||250 * 120 * 65 mm||Up to 4.1 kg||From 10 rubles. /PC.|
Thanks to modern technologies, companies have mastered the production of bricks with the original texture of front surfaces. In the implementation you can find solid bricks for finishing the facades of the following options:
A special glassy coating, before firing, after shaping, liquid glaze is applied to visible surfaces, under the influence of high temperatures it turns into a glassy mass. The surface is highly resistant to scratches and abrasion, and does not completely absorb moisture. In addition, dust does not accumulate on it, the development of microflora is inhibited. Glazed brick is easy to clean, the cladding does not lose its original performance during the entire period of operation. The disadvantage is that the glaze is afraid of sharp dynamic impacts by solid objects, has no plasticity, and cannot dampen deformation.
Glazed facing brick
Engobbed brick in different shades
It is used for finishing individual elements of the facade: door and window openings, columns, etc.
Thickened thickened front facing ceramic brick
In shape, solid facing bricks can be ordinary or figured.
With their help, straight facade walls of buildings can be turned into exclusive buildings during cladding. Cornices and columns, corners and window and door openings are finished.
Glazed fireclay block, black glaze
The texture emphasizes the play of color
Brick facing the facade of a house
Example of facade cladding
Cladding houses with solid bricks has its own nuances, they must be taken into account without fail. The main feature is that a large specific gravity puts forward hanging requirements on the bearing capacity of the foundations. Keep in mind that at least 50 bricks are required per square meter, taking into account the thickness of the mortar.
If we take the average weight of one brick 4 kg, then the mass per square meter without mortar is 200 kg. A house of average parameters has dimensions of approximately 6 m * 8 m * 4 m, the total area of the front walls is (6 + 6 + 8 + 8) * 4 = 112 m2. We did not subtract the area of windows and doors, this decrease in area is covered by the weight of the cement-sand mortar for masonry.
How many bricks are in one cube of masonry
Thus, the total weight of the house cladding will be 112 m2 * 200 kg / m2 = 22400 kg. This means that the load on the foundations increases by 22.
4 tons only due to solid facing bricks. The best option is to take into account the total load during the planning and construction of the foundation. It is not safe to decorate old buildings with such bricks. Foundations need to be strengthened, and this is a very long, laborious and difficult process. In addition, no one can give a 100% guarantee that the structure will not crack.
Any gain is very difficult to calculate, too many factors affect the final performance. Some of them do not depend on special construction activities. Architects in such cases use an increased safety margin for insurance, and this further increases the cost of facing work.
The use of facing bricks
How to clad facades full-bodied brick?
Laying facing bricks
Step 1. Check the condition of the foundation.
This is a very important operation. What to look for?
If it is not there, then try to make the cladding close to the main wall, so it will hold on more reliably. Unfortunately, not all bricklayers lay the wall with high quality, sometimes it collapses, the width of the foundation line on the plinth does not mean anything. Be sure to check with a plumb line.
Above in the article, we have already said how complex and expensive work is to strengthen the foundation tape, it is better to choose another option for finishing the facade walls of the house.
Only after a detailed inspection make the final decision on the methods of facing.
Step 2. Measure the area of the walls, count the number of bricks. It is not worth making a large stock, the facing brick is of high quality, which minimizes unproductive losses.
Practical advice. Due to cases of deception, we do not recommend buying bricks on the Internet.
It is much safer to personally come to the warehouse of the selling company, to get acquainted with the prices, assortment and quality of products. Only then place an order.
Tools for masonry
Step 3 . Check the linearity of the foundation tape with a level.
We take the level and check the horizontality of the foundation
If the builders met the requirements of the standards, then the horizontal spread will not exceed two centimeters at the extreme corners.
Such deviations are eliminated without problems with the first layer of solution. If the linearity mismatch does not fit into these values, then you will have to specifically align the tape. This should be done with strong concrete or cement mortar, the amount of cement increases to two or three parts per unit volume. The repaired tape must stand for at least two weeks for the material to set.
Put waterproofing on the foundation, you can also use modern expensive materials. But the best option is two layers of ordinary roofing material.
Waterproofing at the basement
Waterproofing the foundation with roofing felt
Connect strips of roofing felt with an overlap of at least 150 mm
Step 5. Lay a row of facing bricks.
Calculation of cement for brickwork
When laying, adhere to the recommended distance.
One centimeter is considered universal, but you can change it slightly depending on the style of the facade walls. If the brick needs to be cut in the opposite corner, then try first slightly increasing the gap on the first row.Each time, change the gap by about 2-3 mm, in this way it will be possible to quietly eliminate up to 15 cm of the discrepancy. The specific values depend on the length of the wall. Then there are two options: use a new device to control the thickness of the joint or lay a few bricks "by eye" with an increased thickness of the mortar, and then go to standard parameters.
Professionals go the other way, they have a lot of practical experience, their hand is full, and their eyes notice the slightest deviations in the position of the bricks. But it's hard for beginners to do this. We advise you to make an elementary adaptation of the desired parameters from two wooden battens.
In order for the lined surface to look perfect, we suggest making a simple template
How is it done?
This will be the handle.
Using the same algorithm, prepare a device for vertical seams, its length, of course, should be less. About 15 cm is enough - a little more than the width of the brick. It takes several minutes to make such a device, and it is very convenient to work with it. The seam is perfectly uniform, the face surface of the facing bricks is not contaminated.
The long fixture rests on the bricks, put the mortar on top, align with the trowel according to the thickness of the upper bar.
Practical advice. To make the seam even, do not immediately take the rail away, stretch it a little along the masonry. Due to this, an even and smoothed seam will be obtained, which greatly facilitates its finishing.
Start the work from the corners of the cladding, it is recommended to raise them by 4-5 rows. How to lay the corners?
Step 7. Make two corners, insert studs into the first seams and pull the rope. Make sure that it does not sag. Check the distance between the rope and foundation strap. Everything is normal - start laying the walls.
Do not trust your eyes too much, use measuring tools often. Even experienced bricklayers check the position of each brick facing; they allow themselves to do only irresponsible walls by eye. And then, after several rows, they perform a check and, if deviations are found, correct them.
Laying of facing bricks
We spread the mortar on metal bars
Types of facing bricks
Bricklaying with reinforcement
Installing bricks in a row
Aligning bricks at level
Step 8. If the project provides for the presence of gaps, do not forget to make them.
In facing masonry, vents are made in the seams of the masonry, the approximate distance between them horizontally is 1-1.5 m, vertically 2.0-2.5 m. The vents are especially important for claddings made of sealed solid bricks.
Step 9. The height of the last row depends on the characteristics of the rafter system. Cover the surface of the bricks over the entire area with a cement-sand mortar. Align it horizontally.
The process of laying facing bricks
During laying, it is necessary to align the joints in a timely manner.
Do not allow the mortar to fully set, it is recommended to start the joints about 30 minutes after laying. Store or homemade tools are used for leveling. If you find gaps in the solution, seal them with a new one and smooth the surface.
Cement and mixture bases
Timely clean the surface of facing bricks from solution, the more accurately you work, the faster and better the facing.
The reason is that the brick manufacturer grossly violates the manufacturing technology, an excess amount of lime was added to the mass. During an increase in the humidity of surfaces in wet weather, lime flakes off (shoots off), how long this phenomenon will last is unknown. How to fix it? Plaster using a reinforcing mesh. But it is better to warn you - do not buy low-quality and very cheap facing bricks.
The reason is poor thermal insulation, high energy losses from the interior. It is very difficult to eliminate, you will have to solve issues with wall insulation.
The wall is covered with frost
Ventilation can be checked with open fire or smoke. Depending on the location of the vents, smoke must be drawn in or deviated from the opening.
If you have little experience, call professionals for help.
Jumper set asymmetrically
Jumper set incorrectly
Do not wait for the cladding to fall on its own, there can be very sad consequences.
As for the binding of the cladding to the front wall, an individual approach is needed here. To increase safety, it is recommended to make a binding, for fastening it is better to use a perforated galvanized metal strip. It is fixed to the wall with dowels, the distance depends on the material of manufacture of the bearing wall. If the facade is made of foam concrete, then fasten the plates more often; for brick walls, the step can be increased.
Articles with recommendations should be read, they give good advice. But until you start doing masonry work with your own hands, do not start facing the house. Take a few bricks, try to lay even rows on a free area, then learn to make corners. Beginners make a lot of mistakes, do not get discouraged right away, with experience, skill will appear. Remember that you can align the position of the bricks within a few seconds after it comes into contact with the mortar.
Then it will absorb moisture and any movement will lead to the fact that the strength of the masonry will significantly decrease. We put some bricks, disassemble your test structure, immediately clean the bricks from the mortar. For the second sample, take dry bricks, let these dry.
Some tips from professionals
Remember that the quality of facing depends only on your patience, even experienced bricklayers consider this work one of the most difficult. None of them started with cladding, each practiced for a long time on ordinary walls and partitions.
There you can admit small deviations in technology, this is not critical. And the cladding does not forgive even the slightest mistakes.
The consistency of the mortar depends on the type of bricks and their storage conditions. The more moisture the material has, the thicker the solution should be.The same rule applies to those materials that absorb little moisture.
Scaffolding is required for facing masonry. You can make them yourself from sawn timber (long, expensive and dangerous) or use metal factory ones. We recommend using factory ones, they fully meet safety requirements. Another plus is that as you masonry, the platform height changes quickly. Scaffolding should be mounted only on stable sites, if there is none, then you need to use stops.
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