Humanity has long tried to improve its dwelling and one of the criteria for the quality of a dwelling was (and is) smooth, clean, durable and beautiful floor. One of the ways to make such a floor was (and is) to fill it with a liquid solution, which over time turned to stone and became solid. Lime, gypsum and later cement mortars were used as such materials.
But they had very big flaws (crumbling, dust, cracking, etc.), which were difficult to hide.
This method of flooring was used mainly in non-residential buildings, and, as it were, was in "oblivion" for residential housing construction. But with the advent of new fillers that were able to radically eliminate the disadvantages of homogeneous cement / gypsum / limestone floors, there was a real boom in the use of liquid solutions in housing construction.
The technology of flooring production by filling the surface with a liquid solution gave the name to the new flooring - self-leveling floor. The founders of the self-leveling floor were the Spaniards in the 70s of the 20th century.
From a technological point of view, a self-leveling floor is a monolithic structure that consists of at least three layers.
The self-leveling floor has absorbed the best characteristics to resist wear, shock and the effects of aggressive media, including water.
In a modern interpretation, using a self-leveling floor, you can create effects from ceramic tiles with linoleum to the effects of the "seabed" or "brutal subtropical beach", it all depends on the flight of imagination and skill of the installers.
In modern conditions, this type of flooring is used mainly in non-residential premises due to the fear of the ecological insolvency of the coating components, but the gradual self-leveling floor also captures residential premises, especially in 3D design and when used in combination with a warm floor.
There are few types of self-leveling floors, and this is primarily due to the scarce range of materials for this type of coating and the standard technology of flooring with liquid solutions.
Today, self-leveling floors are distinguished only by the materials of filling the solution for self-leveling coating.
The following types of floors are available:
This is a variety that has the property of self-leveling and on this basis they are used to form an even base for other types of floor coverings or a base for a finish coating with a self-leveling floor of a different composition.
In the final form, mineral self-leveling floors have no aesthetic appeal and are mainly used for office, industrial and garage applications.But the addition of coloring compositions allows many times to increase the aesthetic quality of the mineral floor and expand the range of its use in design solutions in the interior, in the apartment, in the bathroom.
This is a more diverse range of self-leveling floors, in which there are coatings with a varied palette of properties and I think it makes no sense to describe them, so I will focus on the most common polymer coatings are:
Refers to organic compounds and this factor forms such additional properties, aesthetics, transparency and decorativeness. Epoxy is considered to be the most resistant to stress, abrasion, chemical and thermostatic effects and is the most expensive option for a self-leveling floor.
Refers to inorganic compounds, it is less resistant to impact in relation to epoxy floor, but its properties are sufficient for use in industrial premises and residential housing. An example of a polyurethane floor is supermarket floors.
It is also inorganic and of the listed polymer coatings is the least resistant to impact, but at the same time is the most affordable in terms of price and its qualities enough to be used in offices and apartments.
The self-leveling surface that is obtained using liquid solutions has many advantages over the main common floor coverings, primarily:
The advantages of a self-leveling floor, of course, are many and this series can be continued, but in order not to delude ourselves, it is necessary to indicate the disadvantages, which are:
The basis of every selection process is the project of the room and its components (walls, ceiling, floor, windows, etc.). In the project, it is necessary to focus on the purpose of the premises and the analysis of what will happen in the room in order to calculate the operational loads on the floor covering.
Depending on the above factors, we calculate the floor covering, its composition, coating thickness, material consumption, as well as the cost of materials and work.
Every time a non-specialist is afraid of the word calculation.Complex mathematical variants of formulas and a large number of variables immediately appear in my head, but I want to calm you down, nothing of this is necessary, the whole calculation is performed in an approximate form using simple tools for addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
When calculating operational loads, it is necessary to understand what objects will stand on the floor and what their mass is, choose the object with the greatest mass from them and, guided by it, determine the requirements for the material composition of the solution. In the retail trade there are ready-made compositions, on the packaging of which the operational loads are indicated, for which the composition of the jellied floor is calculated, focusing on them, you can choose the appropriate solution.
Next, we determine how long you plan to operate the floor covering in this state, this factor will affect the thickness of the poured layer, and based on this, the amount of purchased materials.
When calculating, the values obtained must be multiplied by coefficient 1.3 - 1.7, this will make it possible to make a self-leveling floor with increased calculations, and will help eliminate errors and inaccuracies in the calculations in case something was not taken into account.
Do not strive to set excessive requirements in the calculations (more than 1.
3-1.7 coefficient), this will lead to an increase in the cost of work and purchases, in this case, less attention will have to be paid to the aesthetic possibilities of the self-leveling floor.
After you have decided on the material and quantity, you can go to the store to buy solutions for self-leveling floor. In the store, when choosing a product, carefully read the instructions on the packaging and make sure that this is what you need. It will not hurt to consult a seller-consultant, especially in order to obtain information about reviews on your chosen self-leveling floor.
The biggest selection problems arise when you decide to make a 3D self-leveling coating. When creating a 3D coating, it is additionally necessary to take into account design solutions, colors, the order of distribution of layers, and the material for the canvases of the substrates. In situations of creating a 3D coating, one cannot do without consulting a specialist and hasty decisions in this case are unacceptable. Remember, pouring the self-leveling floor is easy, but removing it is very, very difficult.
When choosing canvas substrates, be sure to read the composition paints and canvas coatings for interaction with the components of the self-leveling floor solution in order to avoid blurring the paint layer and eliminate the appearance of undesirable effects.
The cost of a self-leveling floor consists of a number of factors that are associated with the amount of mortar in the thickness of the layer, the number of different-component layers of the floor covering in the 3D version of the floor covering, the cost of materials and work on preparing the surface for the self-leveling floor, the cost of canvases for the floor in 3D, the cost of additional materials to ensure a high-quality self-leveling coating (primers, tools, fixtures, solvents, etc.), as well as the cost of floor installation.
All data are summarized in the table below, but it does not use monetary units, but percentages of the total cost of self-leveling floor.
|Order number|| Name of the factor. affecting the cost. |
|percentage cost of 3D in%||cost in percentage of normal floor in%||cost in percent of draft in%|
|1.||cost of basic solution||15||35||35|
|2.||the cost of multi-component layers in the composition of the flooring||15||10||-|
|3.||the cost of materials for surface preparation||5||5||10|
|4.||the cost of surface preparation work||15||5||10|
| 5. |
|the cost of 3D floor canvases||5||-||-|
|6.||cost of additional materials||5||5||5|
|7.||cost of floor installation work||40||40||40|
Indicators given in The tables are indicative and are applicable to the economic segment of the retail trade of building materials when choosing more expensive materials or tools, the percentage distribution of the cost will change, but for calculating the budget of the flooded floor, the table can be a guideline, including when calculating savings options.
If we take the average indicators in monetary terms, then the average cost of flooring is distributed as follows:
3D flooring 3200 - 4500 rubles per square meter;
The usual version of the self-leveling floor is 700 - 1200 rubles per square meter;
The draft version is 550 - 800 rubles per square meter.
Methods of covering a floor surface using a liquid solution boil down to following several principles when performing work.
The first principle is to thoroughly prepare the subfloor.It is necessary to accurately calculate the height of all protruding parts from the base of the floor in order to determine the thickness of the layer so that bumps do not appear on the smooth and level surface during the pouring of the floor.
When determining the thickness of the self-leveling floor layer, it is necessary to calculate it from the point of maximum excess of parts of the main floor and from this level to plan the level. which subsequently forms a self-leveling floor. The thickness of the layer is determined by the difference between the horizontal level, which creates the maximum elevation of the base of the floor and the level of the future finished floor.
When using polymer materials of self-leveling floor , it is necessary to make a rough fill using a dye that is close or neutral in tone, the planned tinting of the surface of the self-leveling floor, in order to avoid the negative influence of the base tint on the design solution of a clean self-leveling floor.
The second principle is based on the continuity of the process of pouring the floor, due to the fact that the self-leveling floor, after pouring it onto the floor, immediately begins to set and its flow property deteriorates with every minute, therefore, for each material of the self-leveling floor a minimum time period is set for leveling the filling surface.
Important to know!
Before preparing the self-leveling floor solution, read the instructions and, most importantly, with the setting time of the material. Start mixing the solution or opening the container with the ready-made solution only after making sure that everything is prepared for pouring and there are no conditions that can distract you during pouring.
The third principle is due to the requirement of processing the filled surface with a special roller with pins to remove air bubbles from the internal composition of the self-leveling floor.
If this is not done, then after the solution dries, shells may appear on the surface, which cannot be removed imperceptibly.
Before pouring the floor, it is necessary to prepare such an amount of mortar that could cover the entire floor surface in the room or adjacent rooms. The amount of mortar is calculated based on the thickness of the planned self-leveling floor layer and the material consumption per square meter, which is indicated in the instructions for the self-leveling floor solution.
When calculating the amount of self-leveling floor solution, this amount must be multiplied by a factor of 1.25 - 1.
5 depending on the unevenness of the base under the self-leveling floor.
The fourth principle is the need to strictly adhere to the curing time of the layers until they dry completely before pouring the next layer. This principle is especially relevant for 3D floors. There are two drying times for the self-leveling floor layer, which are related to the layer thickness. The first time (usually 3 to 24 hours) is the hardening time that allows walking on this surface.
The second time (usually 1 - 42 days) is the time after which it is allowed to process the surface of the self-leveling floor.
When using materials for self-leveling floor, it is better to use materials of the middle drying range, such materials are less susceptible to cracking than quick-drying and the time is not very extended. works to create a self-leveling floor.
The fifth principle is determined by the need to use special grinding tools and devices for processing the surface of the self-leveling floor. A glossy surface loses a lot in aesthetics if there are scratches on its surface.
The list of principles is, of course, poor, but self-leveling floor masters in their arsenal have various methods and options for creating self-leveling floors, so if you decide to make self-leveling floors with your own hands, be sure to collect as much information as possible on the production of self-leveling floors.
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