Stained-glass windows have delighted the eyes of our ancestors since ancient times. Their relevance is not diminishing even today, despite the wide variety of materials and decorations. If earlier the production of stained-glass windows was the lot of a few masters, then in the modern world almost anyone can master certain methods of their creation. All the necessary materials and tools can be purchased at specialized studios and stores. And the widest variety of manufacturing methods will allow everyone to choose it for themselves in accordance with professional capabilities and desires.
Stained glass windows
It is best to start making a stained glass window with your own hands with the simplest, but at the same time no less spectacular techniques. Consider technologies that require neither special professional skills, nor expensive equipment, nor complex and hazardous chemicals. These include the techniques for making the following stained-glass windows:
Beautiful stained-glass windows
The first step is to decide on the dimensions of the glass blank and choose the desired pattern for it. In terms of choosing a picture for a stained-glass window, you can resort to several methods.
Do-it-yourself painted stained glass is a nice addition to your interior
Stained glass window for a children's room
On the selected or drawn picture, it is necessary to pay close attention to the fact that all fragments are clearly traced and separated by continuous lines.
Next, we proceed to the preparation of the glass.
Step 1. First of all, we thoroughly degrease it (a solution of alcohol or ammonia is suitable for this) and wipe it dry so that the surface is not only free of traces of fat, but also completely dry.
Step 2. Exactly and accurately lay the glass on the prepared sketch of the future stained glass, made on a sheet of paper.
With the help of special stained glass paint, with neat movements, draw on the glass the contours of all the elements of the sketch located under it. Most often, in this case, black paint is used, since it gives clarity to the resulting picture, and also clearly expresses the boundaries of all fragments.
Stained glass paints
Step 4. After drawing the lines, let the paint dry well.Otherwise, all the work done can go down the drain if you then accidentally hook on the not dried line and smear it.
When making stained-glass windows, one must not rush, one must understand that this is painstaking and long-term work.
Step 5 . This stage of creating a painted stained-glass window is the most creative and is the process of painting glass, broken by lines applied earlier with black paint into separate fragments. Despite the seeming simplicity of this process, it is necessary to show maximum accuracy here. To complete the work, you will need thin brushes with which you will apply paint to the pieces of the mosaic.
Thanks to the previously applied and already dried contour lines, the colored paint will not spread and will remain within the boundaries of the designated area in the general drawing of the stained-glass window.
Filling the contours with paint
Being carried away by the technical side of the process, do not forget about its creative component. The colors of paints for pouring pieces of stained glass should be selected as follows:
Finished stained glass window
Such a stained glass window will be the main advantage of the kitchen or dining room
Stained glass "Flowers", made with stained glass paints
You will need film and lead tape to work.
In terms of the complexity of manufacturing, this type of stained glass is commensurate with painted. Most often, stylized elements and simple shapes are used here, which also makes it easier to manufacture.
Film stained glass is the best way to decorate and protect your home
Step 1. The first step is to print on the printer, a picture that will be transferred to the glass in the form of a stained glass window. To do this, again, you can use any of the graphics applications that support multi-page printing.
The thickness of the lines in the figure must be at least four millimeters. After that, all parts of the picture are carefully glued together.
Step 2. Next, it is necessary to carry out preparatory work with the glass, on the basis of which the stained-glass window will be made. It must be thoroughly cleaned, degreased and wiped dry.
Proper preparation of glass plays one of the decisive roles in the manufacture of future stained glass.
Degrease the glass with a means for cleaning mirrors and glass
Step 3. The next step is to carefully lay the glass on printed drawing.In the case of an incomplete match, the transfer of the stained-glass window picture will occur with a shift, which cannot be corrected in the future.
So that during the manufacturing process the glass does not move to the side, ruining all the painstaking work, you need to take care of fixing it in advance.
For this, several pieces of double-sided tape are ideal, with which you can fasten the drawing and glass together. They need to be placed in those areas where they do not interfere with the picture of the stained glass window.
The set of necessary tools includes:
From the materials you need to purchase:
The choice of film must be approached thoroughly.
A cheap and low-quality film can burn out very quickly under the influence of ultraviolet radiation, as a result of which the stained-glass window will lose its appearance and you will have to start its production again.
Immediately before starting work, it is recommended to degrease and wipe the glass surface again. For this, an alcohol solution and a microfiber cloth are suitable, from which no fibers remain on the surface of the product.
To prevent the glass from bursting, we substitute soft but durable pads under it
Step 4. This the stage consists in cutting out individual elements from the film.
In this case, it will be better and easier if it is possible to organize the illumination of the workplace from below. If this is not possible, you will have to cut out the elements by measuring them with a ruler. To achieve the maximum effect, you will need to adjust them in the place where you plan to attach. By cutting out slightly larger pieces, they are then perfectly sized and cut along the contour immediately after gluing.
Draw on the film the approximate shape of the part
Gluing individual elements cut out from colored self-adhesive film, produced after the next thorough degreasing of the surface.
Cut out and immediately glue
If it is necessary to glue a strip, then the substrate is removed from a small fragment at one of its ends, and it pressed against the glass surface with a squeegee with a soft pad. The rest of the strip is stretched, which allows it to be positioned exactly along the lines of the drawing. After that, in one sharp movement, the entire remaining part of the strip is pressed against the surface using a squeegee. At this stage, speed is important, since dust can get under the film, which will immediately spoil the aesthetic appearance of the future stained glass.
We glue the film by rolling it with a rubber roller
Important! It should be borne in mind that the glue on the film sets almost immediately, but due to the fact that at first it does not "hold" very much, it is possible to quickly correct possible irregularities and inaccuracies.
When applied, the film only covers the black dividing lines by two millimeters. The rest of them will be hidden later with self-adhesive lead tapes. To get rid of excess film, a ruler is used, which is evenly applied along the black line and, using a sharp knife with a thin blade, the excess is cut off.
With a painting knife along the contour of the pattern we cut off the excess and roll it again, for reliability
In the case when under the glued fragment of the film a particle of dust has somehow got in, and it is imperative to get rid of it.
This is done as follows:
Self-adhesive stained glass films
Gluing curved pieces is a little more difficult than straight ones. In this case, you need to cut out a larger piece of film, stick it in the right place, and then carefully cut out the desired figure along the black lines with a sharp knife. This operation must be carried out carefully, but confidently so that the edges are smooth, as if cut out according to a template.
You may need to practice ahead of time to feel more confident.
In those places where in the drawing of a stained-glass window there are many small-sized multi-colored fragments next to each other, there are several ways to act.
In this case, all colored fragments are cut out separately and glued one by one. Cutting off excess film should be done strictly along the black lines.
Important! It is necessary to know that in no case should several adjacent films be allowed to lay on top of each other. As the temperature rises, the film will begin to expand, and if there is no room for this, then the pattern will certainly deform and the film will peel off.The gap between the individual elements of the stained-glass window must be at least one and a half millimeters.
Further gluing of all colored parts occurs in the same way.
Stained glass in the manufacturing process
After finishing the gluing of colored fragments from the film, you need to go to the lead tape. Due to the fact that it is almost one hundred percent lead, this tape has excellent ductility.
The color gamut is also varied. In addition to basic colors such as gold, silver and copper, there are many more shades.
The lead tape is provided with an adhesive on the inside to ensure perfect adhesion to the glass.
Lead tape must be used to frame each individual fragment of the future stained-glass window.
Please note that at those points where several ends of the tape meet, their joints must be overlapped ...
We must try to plan the work in such a way that all the ends are covered with the next layer. As a result, only one end of the tape should remain, not covered by anything. This is done, first of all, so that during the cleaning process no one accidentally hooks on the protruding elements and does not violate the integrity of the stained-glass window.
After gluing the tape to the stained-glass window, it is carefully rolled using a prepared roller. Where there are straight lines on the stained-glass window, the lead tape on them must be additionally leveled before the glue has time to dry.
A ruler and squeegee are best for this. The alignment method is as simple as it is effective:
Lead tape on a self-adhesive base close the joints and outline the contour
Adhesion of lead tape
The joints of the tape are carefully soldered
Finished film stained-glass window
After applying and rolling the tape with a roller, there comes a moment of compaction, one might even say, sealing of seams. With the help of a special clamp, it is necessary to go over all the joints of the tape and press them more tightly to each other.
This is done so that gaps do not appear in their place in the future, into which moisture and detergents will get into, which will lead to the destruction of the stained-glass window.
By pressing the ends, we add naturalness to our product. In this case, the seams will get the effect of forged and will look very beautiful, and the stained glass itself will serve for a long time and not be afraid of cleaning and cleaning.
Photo of lead tape
Stained glass film and lead tape near
Upon completion of production, it is recommended to wash the finished stained glass window with a cleaning agent. Do not put it on the glass itself, it is better to drip it onto a microfiber cloth and gently wipe the surface.
In order not to displace the tapes that have not yet had time to adhere well, all movements must be carried out in the direction along them.
At this stage, the main thing is precisely accuracy in actions. After all the above operations, you can remove the drawing from under the glass.
If everything is done correctly and all lines and elements are glued exactly and precisely, then such a stained glass window will look beautiful and organic in any interior.
Film stained glass
Film stained glass
Masterpieces on glass
Tiffany is considered one of the representatives of the classic stained glass production technology.
Tiffany stained glass
Tiffany stained glass
The following materials are required for work:
As special tools, you need to prepare:
Step 1. The initial stage of making a Tiffany stained glass window is to create a sketch. It is desirable that the picture, broken by lines into separate fragments, be drawn on a sheet of thick cardboard.
The next step is to cut each element of the sketch separately and circle it with a marker on pieces of colored glass. If soft paper is selected for the sketch, then it will not be very easy to trace the contour, since such paper is constantly wrinkled, this is why thick cardboard is used.
Draw a detail on the glass
Step 3 . Now you need to cut out the fragments outlined on the glass using a glass cutter. After cutting, carefully break off the excess glass.
When working with glass, you need to understand that it will not be possible to immediately achieve the ideal cut line. After breaking off, there will be small protrusions that need to be removed. Small wire cutters are ideal for this.
Cut out the elements of the stained glass from the glass
Step 4. Holding the glass element with pliers, you need to break off the excess with pliers protruding elements.
To prevent pieces of glass from scattering throughout the room, use a small box where you will collect all unnecessary glass debris. Do not forget that while holding the glass with pliers, you cannot squeeze it strongly, otherwise you can simply break it.
Trying on the cut piece on the scheme
Step 5. After completing the operation to cut out elements, go to processing of sharp glass edges. This is where a special sander comes in handy.
If not, then you will have to work with a grindstone. This is much slower and more tedious. In order to process the edge, it is necessary to follow the following algorithm:
Lay out the processed parts
Step 6. At this stage, you will need a pre-prepared foil.
It is sold as a narrow tape with adhesive on one side.
It is necessary to very carefully wrap this tape around the edges of each of the glass elements of the future stained-glass window. It is necessary to wrap in such a way that strips of copper foil of the same size protrude on both sides of the fragment.
We wrap the edges with foil
For this, when wrapping, the copper strip is located in the center of the edge of the glass element. For a tighter fit, the edges of the foil must be smoothed to the glass.
For these purposes, use only a wooden spatula, as a metal one can leave scratches that will ruin the appearance of the entire stained glass window. After the end of the wrapping, you need to fold all the elements into a single sketch once again to make sure once again that all the fragments fit and are where they should be.
Step 7. The next step involves smearing the edges of glass elements with soldering acid, which have already been wrapped with special foil. This is best done with a cotton swab on a stick.
We coat the joints with soldering acid
When brazing, which goes further in the production process, the acid will serve as a flux. With a heated soldering iron, we cling to a part of the tin and solder the elements along the edges. Thus, we combine the fragments into a single stained glass window. To achieve the maximum aesthetic effect, the seam must be continuous and resemble a shaft in appearance. This is very difficult to achieve and it is best to practice beforehand.
The process of soldering a stained-glass window close-up
When soldering, the tin must cover the entire visible part of the foil, and not only on the edge between the elements , but also on their outside. It is necessary to immediately determine where the Tiffany stained glass window will be placed.
Soldering on both sides
Step 8. After completing the soldering, you need to wash the seams.This is necessary in order to rinse away the solder acid residues.
If it remains, then, having reacted with tin, over time will lead to the appearance of unnecessary bryophyte plaque on its surface. For this procedure, you can use what is always at hand. For example, dishwashing detergent.
Step 9. The final stage of creating the named stained-glass window is the final coating of the tin seams with patina.
It should be applied with a cotton swab or cotton swab. First, dampen the swab, then rub the patina vigorously into the pewter seams. After that, once again rinse the finished stained-glass window and you can start installing it.
Electric soldering irons
Creating a filling a stained-glass window begins with choosing a pattern and transferring it to a glass surface. All further actions are aimed at giving the drawing a bulge, which will prevent paint from leaking beyond the specified space.
First of all, let's consider the process of creating a special contour paint. To create it, you will need:
Glue and ink in measured volumes are poured into a small container and begin to mix. In the process, silver is gradually added to them. As a result, you should get a mass of lead-colored consistency similar to sour cream.
As paint is applied to the stained glass surface, its consistency can gradually become more viscous. This can be corrected by adding a small amount of heated water and mascara of the same black color. The paint will return to its original state.
Select a sketch
After preparing the contour paint, we proceed to drawing it along the lines transferred to the glass from the sketch. It is necessary to be guided by the following rules for working with contour paint.
Otherwise, the uniformity in the frame of the stained glass mosaic elements will be lost.
When the contour is dry, you can start painting the glass elements directly. We will consider the process of making paint at home below, but for now we will figure out the very process of applying it.
Step 1 .
The first step is to make sure that the workplace with glass is located in a strictly horizontal plane. Even a miserable tilt in any direction will lead in the future to the collection of all the paint at one of the edges and a thickening of its layer.
Step 2. Filling elements should be done with a wide brush. We dip it in the paint and begin to paint over each fragment separately with generously lubricated paint.
You can use the eyedropper by filling it with paint and painting over the design as in the photo below.
Making a contour filling stained glass window
Important! When working, there is one main rule: in no case should you cross the previously drawn contour, otherwise the colors will mix, and the stained glass window will be hopelessly damaged.
At this stage, you need to show enough perseverance to completely fill all the fragments of the picture without spoiling anything. After the end of the pouring, we again wait 4 hours until the paint dries, and you can continue.
Filled stained-glass window production
This stage consists in redrawing the contours. This is done with the same brush as the first time and with the same copious amount of paint. You need to make sure that the outlines are evenly painted and free from flaws. The black paint should dry within three hours.
This stage consists in saving the created curtain wall and protecting it from damage. For this, up to four layers of nitro-varnish are applied to the entire surface of the glass with stained glass. It can be applied with a brush, but a spray gun is best. Please note that at least ten minutes of time should elapse between sprays for the layers to dry better. Thanks to the measures taken, a stained glass window created with your own hands will delight your eye for at least ten next years.
Its production is completed by installing glass in a specially prepared frame.
Beautiful stained glass window in the interior
There are several methods of making paints. Each of them is good in its own way, so it's up to you which one to choose. Experts recommend mixing the components only in glassware. The ideal option would be a jar in which baby food is sold.
To prepare the paint you will need: nitro varnish with the marked NC-218, oil-based art paints and a solvent.
Nitrolac NC-218 glossy
Artistic oil-based paints
We start mixing with filling the jar by one third with nitro varnish, with gradual addition of solvent in the amount of 40% of the volume of nitro varnish. Stirring continues until a liquid similar to ordinary water is obtained in the jar. After that, we begin to add oil paint to the mixture drop by drop until the color of the future paint acquires the desired brightness. The amount of artistic paint can be up to ten percent of the amount of varnish used.
To prepare paint we need: glue marked BF-2, a similar amount of acetone and paint, soluble in alcohol solution.
During the preparation process, glue is poured into glass containers, and acetone is added to it in a one-to-one ratio. After active mixing, paint is added to the mixture in an amount that provides the color of the desired saturation.
The third method is based on the use of gelatin with dry fabric dyes and water. To prepare paint you need: dissolve 6 grams of gelatin in 200 grams of warm water.
Aniline dyes for fabrics
In a similar way, in another container, dry paints of the desired color are dissolved in warm water. Then, in a clean glass jar, mix the two liquids until the desired color is obtained. Unlike paints prepared by other methods, after being applied to the surface of the stained-glass window, this paint requires covering it with nitro varnish.
In order to estimate the possible costs for the manufacture of a particular stained-glass window, we suggest using the following table. Having studied the list of materials that will be needed in the course of work, it is easier to decide which method of making a stained glass window is more suitable for you.
|Stained glass manufacturing technique||Materials that will be needed during the work|
Painted stained glass
|Sketch paper, adhesive tape, stained glass paints.|
Film stained glass
|Sketch paper, tape, squeegee, small roller, knife, scissors, metal ruler, clamp, stained glass film, lead tape.|
Tiffany stained glass
|Colored glasses, copper foil, glue, acid for soldering, solder, detergent, diamond glass cutter, whetstone, wire cutters, pliers, small soldering iron, patina.|
Filling stained glass
|PVA glue, black ink, silver, stained glass paints, nitro lacquer, sketch paper, scotch tape.|
Making a stained-glass window is a long process that requires a huge amount of time and effort.
Even the simplest manufacturing techniques will not be available to everyone. But at the same time, the completed stained glass window will delight you with its beauty and sophistication. And it is possible that having made one stained glass window, you will want to do it on a professional basis.
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