Step-by-step construction of a basement from blocks or bricks
Basement stage (then there is a zero level) is a completely or even partially deepened tier of a house below ground level. Usually, utility rooms or a garage for motor vehicles are made in such a room.
But with an individual project, it is possible to develop a gym, steam room, pool and much more in a zero room, if only the budget allows. In certain cases, the construction of a basement floor is an excellent solution when the house is located on a mountain slope,
. because this can effectively expand the useful area of the building as a whole. So, let's look at how to make a brick / block base with your own hands.
Before starting construction, it is important to clarify the nuances.
- At the basement stage, it is not required to install windows and doors that will face north.
Since in winter it is especially on such a wall that a lot of snow is swept, this can create a large load, and doors and windows can fail.
- It is important to determine the height of the ceiling at zero level. The ideal parameter will be from 2.3 to 3.5 meters, and this is already a full-fledged floor, for which you need to make a deep foundation pit.
And if you equip it below, then you get a room of a different type, and its functionality will be limited.
- Decide on the wall thickness in the plinth. As a rule, they are proportional to all the walls in the building, and this is permissible if it is located on a stationary ground - in other words, on a solid foundation. When the ground is problematic, which is very common, the wall thickness should be increased by 0.2 meters.
According to the type of material used, there are three main technologies for building a zero level - from wall foundation blocks (FBS), brick and monolithic concrete. We will only consider two technologies.
This is the cheapest construction method. Blocks need to be laid as evenly as possible along the entire contour of the house to make it easier to further plaster them. After them, it is important to fasten them to each other with a solution of cement and sand.
When laying the FBS, it is necessary not to forget about the holes for water and electrical wiring. If the base is only partially located under the earth, then it is required to allocate the maximum area for the windows so that more light gets into the room during the daytime. For ventilation of the room, it is required to make holes in the blocks at 0. 15 meters from the ground level. Ventilation openings must be covered with a mesh, and in winter time covered with dense material.
As a result, the wall should rise 1 meter above ground level. After that, an overlap is installed on the FBS.
When building the zero level using brickwork, pay close attention to the brick laying schemes, since the lower rows of masonry will take over the entire weight of the building.Consequently, the masonry must be reliable and stable.
Arrangement of the base with parallel alignment of the zero level involves soil analysis at the construction site and location groundwater.
If they are located at a depth of 1.5 meters, the basement should be erected no higher than 1 meter. With high-quality planning of a site for construction, it may be required to cover it with an additional layer of earth.
If the groundwater is close to the ground surface, the site will need to be drained. You can quickly cope with this problem with the help of specialized drainage systems.
Their use makes it possible to lay the foundation much deeper. All work on creating a basement made of brick or other material begins with marking the construction site, and after that, according to the project of the house, the foundation pit must be dug out with an excavator.
If the construction is carried out in the spring, then water may accumulate in the pit, which will then need to be disposed of by means of a pump. Another option is to wait until it absorbs itself into the soil. When the required depth is reached, the bottom of the pit must be thoroughly leveled, and the angular adjustment requires special attention.
As soon as the foundation pit is completed, markings are made on the basis of the house plan. Ditches for load-bearing walls must be dug to a depth of at least 0.3 meters. Fill the bottom of the finished ditch with gravel, and then install the reinforcement, and at the end you can pour concrete. It will take about 3 weeks for the concrete solution to dry 100%.
To define a step-by-step plan for building a zero cycle structure, it is important to follow these steps:
The last steps are difficult to perform on your own, especially for an inexperienced master - here it is preferable to resort to the help of professionals.
The specialist will tell you on the case how to plan the ground floor so that it meets all the requirements of the developer. When you have decided on the construction scheme, you can start the main work. Below you will find detailed instructions for all operations when building a zero level with your own hands. The whole process will include many operations that should be analyzed in more detail.
It is not always possible to make the foundation you want.
The reason may lie in the specifics of the soil in your region.In certain climatic zones, the arrangement of some types of foundation is not at all possible. For this reason, we should talk about several types of house foundations that can be built for the zero level.
The foundation on screw piles is a strong, stable and quick-erect structure. It is practiced in wetlands as well as wetlands, sometimes in areas with cool, harsh climates.
If the basement floor is on such piles, then the gap between the lathing of a frame-type house and the surface of the earth needs to be insulated as best as possible.
The slab-type base is suitable for wetlands, with tied soil, and also with loose sand. With such a design, the construction of the zero cycle will be like a box on top of which the whole house will be built. With a land with low load-bearing capacity and high deformation, the base of the slabs will not allow subsidence, since the mass of the structure will be proportionally distributed over the total slab plane.
Strip foundations are ideal when the soil on the site is not problematic.
The first step is to mark the construction site for a home project. Dig a pit along the contour of the structure, and the depth should be determined by the project, but it should not be 0.6 meters deeper than the structural foundation of the ground floor itself. From crushed stone or gravel with a fraction of 5 cm and sand, you need to make a backfill. Make each layer about 10 cm thick, tamp in layers.
The sand also needs to be moistened with water, which will give a better seal. After tamping, fill the base with M100 concrete mortar to a height of 5 cm. Such a layer is required in order to level the base of the zero cycle under the floor slab of the structure. When the concrete dries out completely, you need to lay two layers of rolled waterproofing and tie everything with bituminous mastic. After arranging the base, you can start building the external formwork, but first you need to fill in the flooring.
It will serve as the base for the foundation walls. Fixed reinforced formwork can be made from boards or boards.
For a base of blocks, or rather filling, a number of nuances must be observed:
- For pouring, ideally you should use concrete grade M250 or M300.
- It is important to fill the slab with a layer of 0.2 meters, and more is possible.
- To get rid of air bubbles, it is important to compact the mortar with a deep and rack vibrating compactor.
- Level the surface and leave for 1 month.
- In order to speed up the construction progress, the wall formwork can be started in parallel.
- Experts recommend for use non-removable shields made of thermoplastic polypropylene, which in parallel can also become a heater.
- Reinforcement along the walls is also required.
- The reinforcement rods are tied to the pre-installed vertical type rods.
- In the place where the plan will enter, leave openings under the door.
- To install communications, you need to supply sleeves for the pipe passage.
- The walls can be poured in layers or as a whole, while if you use the first option, then each new layer needs to be poured when the previous one hardens
In general, the reinforced concrete structure will gain strength in 28-30 days.
Thermal insulation and waterproofing
Waterproofing at the basement level involves 2 stages.
Internal insulation is made using special concrete additives. Another name for the method is penetrating waterproofing.
As a rule, basement floors are insulated from the outside. Thermal protection inside the room is done infrequently, and condensation begins to collect between the thermal insulator and the wall in such a situation, which will lead to the formation of small cracks. Warming is carried out according to a different scheme:
5-0. 6 meters. A drainage layer must be poured at the bottom - it will remove water and reduce soil swelling. As a rule, it is a mixture of sand, cement and expanded clay gravel, which is mixed with water.
The surface texture can reproduce any material - natural stone, tiles, bricks.
The panels are very warm, beautiful, easy to install. Their main disadvantage is their high cost. They are installed exclusively on a flat surface, and therefore a crate may be needed.
It is better to decorate the outside walls with real stone.
Such cladding is durable, since the material is very durable. Ultimately, the wall will be protected from temperature surges and destruction, and marble, granite or limestone can be used. A modern cladding material is also used - siding for the basement, because it is able to withstand the harsh climatic conditions, and also does not fade in the sun. Installation is carried out on a correctly made frame (that is, on a crate). As for the interior decoration, you first need to decide what such a room will be used for.
For this reason, first of all, it is necessary to make heating and other communications, for example, sewage, lighting and a water supply system. Inside, plaster is applied to the walls, insulated with polystyrene, foam or foam for insulation.For finishing, it is better to choose materials that are resistant to moisture.
First, insulate the floor surface:
- Make a sand pillow.
- Then lay the roofing material.
- Avoid spaces when decking.
- Install the mesh reinforcement (metal) on top.
- Then fill the floor with M300 or M400 concrete.
Based on the purpose of the room, the insulation of the floor surface can be performed by different methods. For example, in the living room or gym, you can make a water or electric "warm floor".
As for the utility rooms, it makes sense to lay out slabs of wood concrete or fill the floor with a 10-cm layer of expanded clay. Pour the final concrete screed over the insulation.
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