Any existing technology requires strictly its implementation - all manipulations must be done in a certain sequence, according to the descriptions.
This also applies to the installation of various types of sandwich panels.
A qualified and well-coordinated team of five people can master the facade area of up to four hundred square meters in just one shift.
The main thing in this, of course, is to adhere to the design and regulatory documents, to comply with the developed technology.
Otherwise, the result may not justify itself, and during the subsequent operation of the building various problems may appear.
Before proceeding directly to the installation work, it is necessary to carry out the preparatory measures correctly. These include the assembly of the structure itself, the determination of the correspondence of the future fixing points of the panels, their horizontal, flatness, verticality and parallelism. A special way is required to prepare the places of contact and abutment.
If you plan to install the material on a steel structure, then they must first be covered with a paint and varnish anticorrosive coating.
If the potential foundation is reinforced concrete, then the frame should be examined for mortar leaks, dirt and dust.
It must be well cleaned and leveled. Only after these procedures is the marking of the attachment points of the bottom of the sheets on the columns of the structure carried out.
First, they are always slinged. It is produced on a special site not far from the assembly grip.
Slinging with the help of a special two-branch sling is filled with vacuum grippers for vertical or horizontal layout.
In those places where the grippers are located, the protective factory film is removed from the panels, the surface is freed from dust and dirt, and, if necessary, from ice.
A safety belt made of durable textile is put on the panel: to secure the slinging, it is connected to the gripping mechanism. The prepared panels are fed to the installation site raised by one meter (not higher), then they are lowered to a certain level (30 cm) and placed in the required position.
All panels must be installed in accordance with the project : on the support points according to previously marked landmarks.
It doesn't matter whether it is temporary or permanent, but the panel should be well fixed with special equipment for installation: a jig, spacers with clamps, mowing, etc. Only after fixing it can the panel be released from the tap.
Before final fixing of the sandwich panel, it is important to scrupulously check the accuracy of the installation, bring it to the design position.Only after that, in accordance with the project, it is fixed. After that, it can be released from the temporary fasteners.
It is important to constantly monitor the movement of the panel and its rise - so that it does not bend, its locks do not deform. Dents and defects should not form on its lining. Therefore, you need to move the sandwich carefully, at low speed, without jerking or displacement.
Panels are usually installed with the ridge forward, that is, "tongue in groove". But you can do this and "groove to thorn", on the contrary.
Usually, the installation work starts from the corner of the building: vertically align, then press the panel to the girders, fix it with self-tapping screws 5.5 cm thick when fastened to the crossbars and metal columns.
The length of these screws varies according to the thickness of the panels themselves. For this, a special table has been developed.
Having picked up the self-tapping screws of the required length, they are placed in one horizontal line, three pieces in a row.
The step of fastening sandwich panels to metal structures is about 40 cm.
From the upper end, the installation of screws begins, which are fixed to the purlins from the upper row towards the lower ones.
If the top of the panel is left loose even for a short time, such as during a break, it may break.
In the case when a sealing washer is used to tighten the screw, certain nuances must be taken into account. If the tightening is too tight, the washer will deform.
The procedure is considered to be performed optimally if the washer does not become flat, but is firmly pressed against the sheet.
Outside, a thermal separation strip is attached to the surfaces of crossbars, beams and wall girders.
This is necessary to reduce the air permeability in the joints, as well as the sound vibration of the panels themselves.
Before installation of each subsequent panel, a special sealing sealant for external work is introduced into the "groove" of the lock of the previous plate.
An 8mm butyl rubber sealing cord or an 8x3mm TSP sealant can be used instead.
With their help, the lock is sealed from the inner wall. The next panel is inserted into this particular lock.
Then the tightness of the connection, the verticality of the panel is checked, its fastening is carried out, all the necessary work is carried out, as with the previous ones.
Loose connections and crevices are not allowed. The end panel seams are processed with a cotton-mineral sealant.
As with vertical layout, on the building frame (purlins and columns) in the place where they will be in contact with panels, a thermal dividing strip is used.
From the corner of the object begin to mount panels. The panel is installed with the groove down on the plinth, its horizontal alignment is verified, and it is securely fixed.
Fastening takes place in the same way as in the first case, in the same way, using the previously mentioned self-tapping screws and sealant. Vertical joints are treated with polyurethane foam and mineral wool, then, according to the project, they are closed with special shaped elements.
What are the fittings for?
They are used for reliable closing of panel joints: can be basement, corner, can serve for framing openings, etc. They are installed in accordance with the design of the mounting corners and overlap sealing joints.
There are special rules for their installation. Installation is carried out so as to ensure the tightness of the assembly. The overlap for horizontal elements should be from 5 cm, for vertical elements 8-10 cm.
Fastening of shaped elements starts from the bottom of the structure and leads towards the ridge.
If necessary, adjust the individual elements, avoiding the formation of gaps and gaps. Along the planes of connecting the shaped elements to the panels, they are sealed with an external sealant. Outside the building, the elements are fixed to the panels with 28 mm x 4.8 mm self-tapping screws with a gasket.
Fastening can also be carried out with combined rivets.
Before starting work with roofing panels, measures are taken to arrange girders and rafters, determine the horizontal, flatness, parallelism and verticality of the places of the planned installation of panels.
A working platform is arranged on the supporting structures in the form of a flooring. Then they prepare everything necessary for installation.
Steel elements of purlins, rafters and crossbars are coated with a paint-and-lacquer anti-corrosion coating.
Its presence is especially important in the places of future contact and adjoining.
After that, markup is made to accommodate the very first panels.
As mentioned earlier, a thermal separating strip is glued to the roof girders, which is necessary to reduce sound vibration and air permeability.
At the factory, sandwich panels are not always fully prepared for installation. In this case, they have to be finalized on the spot.
Laying the first row
As for the panels of the second and next rows, they also need to be prepared, if this was not done at the factory.
Laying the second and next rows
For this, it is necessary to perform the following measures:
For each construction site, a special wiring diagram is developed, which includes detailed information on the installation procedure. All the necessary work is being carried out in accordance with this plan.
Their sequence looks like this: First, an end plate is placed on the ramp, which is aligned with the alignment axes and the structural frame.
The correct installation of the rest depends on the thoroughness and accuracy of laying the very first panel .
They are aligned with the roof overhang. You can lay them in rows if the length of the panel and the length of the slope are multiples. Otherwise, all work leads from the overhang to the ridge. The subsequent rows are laid by analogy with the first.
In the transverse direction, they overlap by 15-30 cm, depending on the roof slope.
In the longitudinal direction, they must overlap by one edge (corrugation). At the factory, the panels are not always fully prepared for arranging the overlap and drain, therefore, in accordance with the working scheme, they are cut at the facility itself.
A silicone sealant compound is applied at the overlap on the panels of the lower row. It can be replaced with butyl rubber cord. The sealant is applied to the "groove" of the lock of the lowest sheet and to the groove of the corrugation of the panel (lock), which is prepared for installation.
You can use a sealing tape or TSP (lock seal) for this.
In full accordance with the project, according to the reference points, the first panels are mounted at each row. The panel is first securely fixed with the mounting hardware, and only then is detached from the crane. But this is also not a final fixation - first you need to check the correctness of the installation and compliance with the project. Only after that the panel is finally fixed.
Each of these panels is securely fixed at the load-bearing structures and at the joints. For this, special self-tapping screws are used, the length and thickness of which depends on the dimensions of the panels and the supporting object.You can first use a couple of hardware to secure it, but finally it is fixed according to the project.
Such fasteners start from the top, then down the slope of the slope, and from the ridge to the canopy. Screws are installed along the top of the wave crests of the upper facing, with a pitch of 50 cm.
The screw fixing pitch above the downpipe is 25 cm in each wave.
The panels are fixed along the overlapping corrugation using special spacers and self-tapping screws.
The step should not be more than 50 cm. This is done after the final fixing of the panels to the object. The formation of leaks and gaps between individual panels is not allowed.
It is not recommended to move the panels along the already mounted part of the roof, and you should also not place technological or installation equipment on it.
When the installation work is completed, the surface of the panels is freed from the polyethylene protective film. After that, do not walk on them to avoid damage and scratches. To move along the mounted roof, temporary ladders or special floorings are equipped.
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