step by step instructions - project and drawings of rafters, calculation + Video

step by step instructions - project and drawings of rafters, calculation + Video Often, when erecting a roof, people have to make a rather difficult choice - which option to prefer.

The fact is that modern technologies provide an opportunity for such a choice, allowing in a fairly short time to mount any kind of roof. In Russia, gable rafter roofs have always been more popular.

Thinking about which structure is more suitable, the homeowner starts from many factors: its functionality, reliability and durability, the ability to prevent precipitation from entering the building.

step by step instructions - project and drawings of rafters, calculation + Video Perhaps this was due to the peculiarities of the climatic conditions of our country.

In winter, much less snow is collected on such roofs, because it rolls off the surface, reducing the load on the structure.

The number of ramps does not in any way affect the parameters of the house, so the specific choice depends on the preferences of the owners.

The gable roof of the truss system is easy enough to install, it is durable and reliable in operation. Its structure allows the use of many different materials as roofing: from the familiar, well-known slate to fashionable metal tiles.

A house with a gable roof: advantages

step by step instructions - project and drawings of rafters, calculation + Video Such a roof looks like two surfaces inclined to each other, oriented along the long sides of the house, connecting at the top to form a ridge.

It goes well with a classic house, which has a familiar rectangular shape.

Among the advantages are:

  • sufficient strength and slope height, allowing the use of almost any roofing material;
  • light and simple structure;
  • well-ventilated attic;
  • slope of the slopes, preventing the accumulation of precipitation.

step by step instructions - project and drawings of rafters, calculation + Video Roof slope is an important parameter for this type of roof. For dry areas, its optimal value is up to 45 degrees. Where the amount of precipitation is high, it increases to 60.

When designing the roof, one should also take into account the prevailing winds in a given area: after all, with an increase in the angle of inclination, the windage of this part of the structure increases.

The choice of a suitable type of roofing also depends on its slope.

Tiles and slate, for example, can be used only if they are at least 22 degrees. The final cost of the roof will also depend on the slope of the slopes. The larger it is, the more you will have to spend on covering materials, and the higher the total price will be.

Gable roof rafters: device diagram

step by step instructions - project and drawings of rafters, calculation + Video
Types of rafters gable roof

What does any rafter system consist of? These are the rafters themselves, the Mauerlat for the roof, struts and the crate. The rafter legs with their upper ends should overlap by means of special overlays.The lower ends are connected to the support beams made of logs, as well as to the Mauerlat.

According to the project, a gable roof can be made in two ways: with hanging rafters, or with inclined ones. This or that method is selected based on the size of the structure of a frame house or a gazebo.

It is extremely important that the calculation of the gable roof (rafter system) is correct. This is best handled by a professional worker who is worth hiring.

The fact is that in the event of a possible error in the calculations of the required rafter section, it is quite likely that the connection of individual nodes is disrupted, or even the destruction of the rafter system itself. One way or another, the further operation of the building will be questionable.

Fastening the support bar (aka Mauerlat)

It can be carried out by various methods:

  • The most reliable of them (aka the most common) is as follows.

    When the walls are mounted, on which it is then planned to attach the support bar, a concrete belt (continuous) is created around the perimeter of the building. It can be replaced with a concrete beam.

step by step instructions - project and drawings of rafters, calculation + Video Thick studs, at least 12 mm in diameter, are inserted into this armopoyas. The studs must penetrate the axis of the Mauerlat when attaching it. It is necessary to leave about five centimeters from its edge to the edge of the armopoyas.

The distance between the studs should be between one and a half to two meters, so that each part of the support bar is securely fixed along the edge.

Do not forget at least the minimum required roof slope. Otherwise, you may face its leakage, or damage by strong wind.

It is possible to reduce the cost of work by replacing special studs with cuttings of reinforcement with bolts welded to them. The use of anchors instead of studs increases the possible waste.

  • During laying, the studs are embedded directly into the wall. They will have to be buried much deeper, so the studs themselves should be much longer. Not as reliable as the previous method, but for a gable roof with an area of ‚Äč‚Äčless than 250 squares (with and without an attic), it is quite suitable.
  • The most affordable way. A soft, but thick wire is pre-laid in the masonry, with the help of which the Mauerlat is then fixed.

    How it's done? Shortly before the end of the laying, when there are several rows left, the middle of the wire is placed between the rows so that its ends protrude evenly on both sides.

step by step instructions - project and drawings of rafters, calculation + Video
Mauerlat mounting schemes

Their length must be sufficient for attaching the support Mauerlat. To prevent the wire from being too visible, its outer end is passed through the mortar joint between the bricks.This method is quite common and very reliable, especially when it comes to a structure of modest dimensions (for example, 10 by 10)

If the walls and beams have undoubted strength, then it is permissible to fix the rafters directly to the beams without using a supporting Mauerlat. The plan of the gable roof rafters may provide for the use of the upper crown of the house (chopped) instead of the Mauerlat.

In some cases, a separate roof support bar is required.

Between the girders and the posts, to strengthen the stability of the rafters, struts are made. The necessary parameters for struts and rafter legs are calculated according to the calculation of the roof. The usual width of simple rafter boards is about five centimeters, their height is up to 20.

To form an overhang, which will become a reliable protection of the outer wall from precipitation, tightening or rafters are taken out at least half a meter beyond the plane of this very wall.

A good waterproofing layer is required under the Mauerlat, otherwise the service life of the structure will be greatly reduced. You can use good old roofing felt or other similar material.

step by step instructions - project and drawings of rafters, calculation + Video Several layers of insulation are placed between the rafters, always with offset seams. Materials with low thermal conductivity are used as insulation, for example, ordinary mineral wool. In addition to thermal insulation, it is necessary to equip a vapor barrier.

For this, a well-stretched polyethylene film is fixed on the inside of the insulation.

A special vapor-proof waterproofing film is used. This is a diffuse membrane with a special perforated structure. It is capable of releasing the steam that gets from the interior into the insulation outside, but prevents moisture from entering it from the outside.

Crate: Build Order

step by step instructions - project and drawings of rafters, calculation + Video After that, you can start the direct installation of the gable roof according to the drawing.

The final (before roofing) stage of completing the gable roof structure will be the assembly of the sheathing. Usually a wooden beam of 6 * 6, 5 * 5 or 4 * 4 cm is used for its manufacture.It is installed perpendicular to the rafters, as provided for by the design. The lathing serves to transfer and redistribute the weight of the roof to the rafters, which, in turn, direct it to the load-bearing walls of the structure. The size of the lathing step can be different, and it depends on the type of the selected roofing material.

Some of them generally require the arrangement of a continuous floor covering. These are, for example, flat slate or soft roofing. And under the soft bitumen tiles, an additional underlay carpet is required, mounted on top of the flooring. It not only evens out its surface, but also protects against unnecessary moisture when laying roofing materials.

For this, you can use a specially treated fiberglass with bitumen impregnation.

DIY Gable Roof is a great choice for responsible homeowners who are not afraid to get their hands dirty and ready to go. A simple structure representing an isosceles triangle in section is not at all difficult to build on your own. The height of the descent and the angle of inclination of the roof can be varied, but certainly within the boundaries of correctly made calculations.

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