As a rule, terraces are fenced with wooden balustrades, sagging chains or any other structure. Sometimes the terrace may not have a fence.
At the stage of designing a frame house, it is necessary to foresee the presence of a closed or outdoor terrace. In this case, it can be built on the foundation together with the house, and this is important for the durability and reliability of the entire structure.
If you decide to build a terrace after building the house, then you will have to calculate a new terrace project. To do this, you need to contact special architectural organizations. To complete the project, it will be necessary to inspect the soil, take into account the weather characteristics of the region: snowfall and size of snow cover, precipitation level, depth of soil freezing, and so on.
A thorough examination of the condition of the foundation of the house, the general structure of the house and the roof, to which the terrace will adjoin, will also be required.
The project specifies the dimensions, shape of the terrace, height above ground level, building materials for the foundation. But all this is only after all the necessary calculations of the supporting structure.
When planning the construction of an open terrace, you do not need permits. According to the law, even a foundation is not required for open terraces, since it will be considered a temporary structure.
But if you plan to build a closed-type terrace or glazed veranda, you cannot do without special permits, since such construction is already considered a redevelopment
. With a finished project for a closed terrace, you need to contact the chief architect of the city or district. After a positive conclusion and completion of construction, it is imperative to make changes to the documentation for the house. Without this operation, you will not be able to sell it in the future, and your heirs will certainly have problems with re-registering the house.
If you are ready to build a terrace with your own hands, the first thing to do is to decide on its location.
Where your terrace will be located will determine not only the beautiful appearance of a wooden house, but also its convenience.
A common place for a terrace extension is the wall where the front door is located. With this arrangement, the terrace performs several functions at the same time: a porch, a canopy, a recreation area.
You can also equip a terrace from the living room or kitchen side and equip an exit from these rooms directly to it.
Another option for the location of the terrace is to install it around the entire perimeter of the house.
The exit will be located only on one or several sides, it all depends on the design of the frame house.
You can hide the terrace from prying eyes by placing it on the back side of the house. In the spring-summer period, the fragrance of garden trees, the noise of foliage and the singing of birds will lull you and create cozy conditions for a favorable rest from the city rush and bustle.
It is worth noting that in the northern regions the terrace is located on the southern side of the frame house , and in the southern regions it is customary to place the terrace on the eastern or northern side.
The wind rose is an important factor when designing a terrace.
This is especially important in regions with strong gusty winds. In this case, the extension is positioned so that the ledges of the wooden house protect it from strong winds.
As we can see, the choice of a specific location is quite important. Since its convenience and comfort will completely depend on various factors that we have listed above.
The size of the terrace will depend on several details.
The first is the total area that can be used for it. After all, the land plot is not always large. The second is the purpose of the terrace. To arrange a dining and kitchen area, it is necessary to count the number of people permanently living in the house, and calculate a place for a dining table and chairs, benches and armchairs. If you plan to add another seating area, then calculate in advance the place for hammocks or sun loungers.
With such planning, it is important to think over the aisles correctly so that it is easy to move between rooms and the terrace.
The shape of the terrace can be different: square, rectangular, round, broken, polygonal, etc. Which one to choose depends on your personal desires and preferences, as well as free space. For the device of an open terrace, the shape will not create any difficulties. And for closed terraces, it will be necessary to provide a comfortable and high-quality roof.
If your terrace is of an unusual shape, glass details and elements that are fashionable today can be used to install the roof.
We wrote about the shape and size of the terrace above, now we will consider the materials of manufacture.
The main rule when choosing a building material for a terrace is harmony with the general interior of the house. There is no need to use the same building material.
Example, if the house is made of brick, only some details and elements made of brick are used for the terrace: columns supporting the roof or decorative elements.
And the floor and balustrade of the terrace itself can be made of wood.
If your house is made of wood, log or logs or beams, it is best to choose the same materials for the terrace, otherwise it will not be in harmony with the overall picture of the house.
In any rule, there are exceptions - a glass roof or glass fences will look perfect against a background of wood, and against a background of brick and stone.
Wrought iron terrace fences are suitable for houses made of stone.
Wood is the best choice for the terrace floor.
To increase its strength, you can additionally cover the floor with ceramic tiles or porcelain stoneware. Sometimes, for flooring, special materials are used that can withstand severe cold and frost, precipitation and frequent temperature fluctuations.
The frame of the entire terrace is usually made of wooden beams, wooden beams, brickwork and metal structures. Treated wood is always used for the roof frame. And the roof of the terrace must be made of the same building material as the roof of the house.
An exception would be glass roofing.
This question torments many and for good reason. Very often there are situations when a terrace or veranda on its own foundation is very rigidly and firmly connected to the house, and over time cracks appear in the terrace structure. The reasons for this are as follows: under the weight of the structure, the soil shrinks significantly, and a high intensity of shrinkage - immediately after the end of construction. Over time, it will decrease, reaching the minimum insignificant values per year.
The shrinkage rate directly depends on the weight of the entire structure and on the soil on which it is installed. The shrinkage of the soil under the main building will be significantly greater than under the veranda or terrace. The frame house, and with it the terrace, will settle over time, but at different speeds and with different depths. When the terrace is rigidly attached to the house, part of the load from the house will be distributed to the base of the terrace, and this will lead to cracks and the subsequent destruction of not only the terrace structure, but also the foundation of the whole house.
Light terraces built on separate foundations , Do not attach to a wooden house in order to exclude subsidence of these objects relative to each other.
Expansion joints are used to connect the terrace and the house; they will not interfere with the subsidence and movement of the entire structure.
Closed verandas, which will be used as additional rooms, are attached to a wooden house with special elements that will allow the entire structure to move up to a certain point. The first thing worth noting is that a veranda or terrace is built on a foundation, to the depth of freezing of the soil, followed by the necessary bedding. If possible, make a connection to an already existing foundation, but not too rigid. For reliable and correct connection of all structures, special calculations are carried out.
If the walls of the terrace are wooden, they are connected to the walls of the house using the "tongue-and-groove" system.On the wooden beams of the house and the terrace, spikes and grooves are cut out, which allow the structures to settle in a strictly vertical plane.
If the walls of the terrace are made of bricks, they are connected to the walls of the house using special anchor bolts or brackets so as to ensure sufficient mutual movement and movement.
When building a high-quality terrace, the best option would be to install it together with the house on a monolithic foundation. In the future, this will help to avoid various problems.
Determining the layout and type of foundation for a terrace will depend on the building material from which you plan to build the terrace. But this is not the final criterion. Soil properties will be no less important.
The foundation of the terrace must be installed at the depth of soil freezing. If this property is neglected, in winter the water in the ground under the terrace will simply freeze, and in the spring, during the thawing period, it will begin to "lead" the terrace in an unknown direction.
It can even collapse a whole wall.
For wooden light terrace type, you can install a columnar foundation. For this, special trenches are dug into which building materials are poured in layers: crushed stone, sand and gravel. After that, formwork is performed on top for pouring concrete. This is how support pillars are made of concrete mixture.
Depending on the properties and qualities of the soil, some can be equipped with brick support pillars.
It is advisable to install glazed verandas and terraces and panoramic glazing on strip foundations. If you plan to connect the veranda with the house, then initially dig out the foundation of the house, then install the reinforcement in it and connect it to the new foundation, which will be like a continuation of the main one. Its width should be equal to the width of the wall of a wooden house. Here it is most important to correctly and thoroughly carry out all the calculations, since the soil next to the house will already be "planted".
It is better to entrust such calculations to professionals.
If you decide to install your terrace simply on a concrete slab, it should also not be laid directly on the grass. It is imperative to remove the top layer of soil and fill it with building materials that allow water to pass through well. The slab itself must be reinforced on both sides in order to withstand uneven external loads.
In conclusion, we note: do not neglect additional calculations for the construction of a veranda and a terrace, in particular - calculations of the foundation.
If you want your structure to serve for a long time and not deform over the years, entrust the design of the veranda and the project of the terrace to architects, and choose the building materials yourself, taking into account the special climatic conditions in your region.
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