Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Due to the regular increase in the cost of energy, people are constantly forced to come up with something that could make their homes warmer and at the same time reduce heating costs. One of these very useful solutions is hinged ventilated facades. The multilayer external structure of the walls improves their thermal efficiency and extends the service life, and the use of decorative materials of various textures and colors allows achieving improved aesthetics of the building as a whole.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation
Suspended ventilated facades

Structuring of the ventilated facade

Why is the facade system called ventilated ? Yes, because in it the topcoat does not adjoin the wall closely, but is located at a certain distance. This gap is for air circulation to prevent condensation.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation
The principle of operation of the curtain wall

The air gap is also a natural heat insulator, so even if the system is not insulated, the walls will not freeze so much as when performing plastering or adhesive lining.

What are the features of the system

Since this is a system, it means that it consists of a certain number of elements. If we consider it in essence, without taking into account possible nuances, then it is:

  • substructure (frame, the structure of which we will consider a little later);
  • heat-insulating plate material;
  • hydro-wind protection in the form of a membrane;
  • air gap;
  • decorative and protective screen.

Note! There may not be thermal insulation in the IAF system, but even in this case, the ventilation gap is required. However, most often this system is designed for the purpose of external insulation, since wall insulation installed from inside the premises does not give the desired effect.

Therefore, in the article we will discuss exactly the insulated facade.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation
The structure of illegal armed groups

In capital construction, the option of exterior decoration of the building is provided at the design stage. If the decision is made to make the cladding according to the IAF system, then depending on the type of used hinged material (weight plays the main role), the number and strength of the supporting frame elements must be calculated.

Ventilated systems are good because they can be installed not only on newly erected buildings, but also on those already in use for a long time, in order to update their appearance and increase the thermal efficiency of existing walls. The material from which they are erected can be any, but its mechano-physical properties should be taken into account.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation
Non-insulated curtain facade made of porcelain stoneware

For example, aerated concrete wall does not have the strength of a brick one, and may not withstand the substantial weight of the curtain structure. Special fasteners help solve the problem, but they have their limits. Therefore, in multi-storey construction for such walls, they often design not ventilation facades, but warm plastering systems.( e.g.

polymer siding). They imitate wood, brick or stone, plaster, and with a weight of 1 m² of cladding no more than 3 kg, they can be mounted anywhere.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation
Metal cassettes
Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation
Decorating a high-rise building according to the IAF system with linear panels
Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation
Aluminum composite in facade design
Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation
Interesting cladding design with HPL panels
Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation
Low-rise building with curtain wall siding façade
Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation
Composite timber ventilation façade

Solid brick or reinforced concrete buildings benefit the most from ventilated façade installations, as these are the coldest walls. As a result of such external finishing, the internal climate-comfort in such buildings is significantly improved, not to mention their exterior.

Overview of the elements of the subsystem

If in low-rise buildings the role of load-bearing elements of the ventilation facade is perfectly played by wooden bars, then in official construction only steel subsystems are designed.

Their completeness may vary depending on the type of decorative modules and the way they are attached, but in general it looks something like the one shown in the table.

Table 1. Varieties of subsystem elements.

Appearance and name of the element Design features

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Reinforced support bracket

This is the part due to which the guide is held on the wall, as well as the necessary indentation is provided. Most often, the bracket looks like a corner with a convex rib (it provides rigidity), but there may be other options.

As you can see in the photo, the support bracket has two shelves: the first support is the one on which there are two oval-shaped mounting holes, the second is the support one. Either an integral part of the bracket or the frame post itself is attached to it.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Two piece bracket

In the system there may be not only support (which are directly fixed to the wall), but also movable brackets. When combined, they form a composite bearing element.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Anchor

An anchor is a type of fastener that provides reliable fixation of brackets to walls.

The diameter, as a rule, is 8 mm, the length varies from 8 to 25 cm. When mounting the subsystem on dense concrete or brick surfaces, self-anchoring bolts are used.

On walls made of porous or hollow materials, universal expansion dowels with a pulling out force of 2.5 kilonewtons or more are used. The selection is carried out depending on the condition and type of base.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Profiled rail

One of the main elements of the ventilation facade is rail, which in different systems can have the shape of a corner or the Latin letter Z. Depending on the configuration and position of the facing modules, it can be mounted vertically, horizontally, or crosswise. Attaches to bracket shelves.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Clammer

The term "clammer" (or kleimer) refers to steel fastening elements by means of which the facing plates or cassettes are fixed to the battens.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Material for insulation

There are many types of insulation, but for installation mineral wool is best suited to the hinged subsystem.

Expanded polystyrene is vapor-tight, it does not allow steam accumulated in the room to escape. As they say in such cases: "the wall does not breathe."

For facades, slabs with increased rigidity of the P-125 brand with a density of 75 kg / m³ are used. If necessary, they can be installed in several layers, the total thickness of the thermal insulation is determined by calculation.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Vapor diffusion membrane

A diffusion membrane is installed on top of the insulation.

Its task is to protect the insulation from weathering and getting wet outside, and to enable the steam to go out into the ventilated space. That is, the material is double-sided, and it is very important not to confuse during installation which side should face the insulation.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Dowel for insulation

The elements of the crate provide a firm fit of the insulation, but and mechanical fixation is also required. For this purpose, disc-type dowels are used.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Metal cassette

The photo shows only one of the variants of the ventilated cladding - metal cassette.

They are most often used to decorate buildings with a large area of ​​facades.
But in general there are many options, and the following can be used as cladding:
1. Aluminum composite (Alukobond type).
2. Profiled steel sheet.


3. Heat-treated wood.
4. WPC (composite of wood and polymer).
5.

Thermal panels (two or three-layer modules made of insulation and small tiles).
6. Siding (long or modular panels with a lock connection).
7. High strength HPL plastic.


8. Porcelain stoneware.
9. Ceramic panels and tiles.
10.

Fiber concrete and artificial stone panels.

Prices for mineral wool

Mineral wool

Except during the installation of the hinged system, accessories for framing openings, decorating joints and transitions from one plane to another can be used. But this already depends on what kind of material is chosen for the cladding.

Prices for insulation dowels

Umbrella dowel

Curtain wall system - step-by-step installation

The correct calculation of the load-bearing elements and the overall thermal efficiency of the system is very important, but its high-quality installation also plays an equally important role in the durability of the structure. We present to your attention step-by-step instructions that will tell you what technological operations, and in what order, you need to perform.

Table 2. Installation of a curtain front.

Steps, photo Comment

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Step 1 - marking the attachment points of the brackets

With the help of geodetic devices and the level, the points of the brackets are determined and the markings are made. The first vertical row of the frame should be located 10 cm from the corner. The pitch between the two belts depends on the configuration of the cladding elements, but on average is 60 cm.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Step 2 - drilling holes for anchors

After marking, proceed for drilling holes for installing dowels. When the ventilation façade is mounted on brick walls, it is very important to drill so that the attachment points do not coincide with the masonry seams. From the dowel to the horizontal seam (spoon) should be at least 2.5 cm, and to the vertical (butt) - 6 cm.

Note! When cladding facades made of hollow bricks or blocks, special spacers or chemical anchors must be used.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Step 3 - cleaning the holes from dust

It is very important to clean the holes from dust in order to obtain quality fasteners. All means are good for this. Builders have special devices, at home you can use a special attachment for a vacuum cleaner.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Step 4 - driving the anchor dowel

The dowel is driven into the cleaned hole , into which the anchor bolt will be installed a little later.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Step 5 - installing the paronite gasket

To avoid the formation of cold bridges , at the junction of the brackets, shock-absorbing and heat-insulating layers in the form of paronite gaskets are installed.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Step 6 - hanging the bracket

The bracket is hung and secured with an anchor, which is first hammered in ...

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Step 7 - tighten the anchor bolts

..

. and then tightened with a screwdriver. If it is supposed to do double insulation, an additional component is immediately mounted on the support brackets, which will provide the desired overhang.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Step 8 - cuts in mineral wool slabs

Now you can start installation of thermal insulation. Plates are put on brackets, for which slots corresponding in shape and location are made in them.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Step 9 - planting the plate on the bracket

The plate is planted on the standard place, after which a pressure washer is put on over the protruding part of the bracket.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Step 10 - joining plates

The insulation is mounted from the bottom up, with the gap between the seams is similar to that of brickwork. It is very important that there are no through joints more than 2 mm wide between the elements of thermal insulation.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Step 11 - installation of extensions

starting one row with the installation of the whole plate, and the next with half. They are easy to cut with a knife and cannot be broken or torn.

Pay attention! At the corners of the building, the toothed dressing of the seams must be observed when the end of one slab comes to the end of the other.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Step 12 - drilling holes for the disc dowel

Now the slabs must be fixed mechanically, for which holes are drilled again - now for the dowels-mushrooms.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Step 13 - fixing the slabs

Usually slab size 1.2 * 0.6 m is attached at five points - in the corners, at a distance of 5 cm from the seams, and in the center.

The half is fixed with four dowels.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Step 14 - installation of the second layer of insulation

If you intend to mount a double insulation layer, plates are taken of different densities. Less dense ones go to the first layer, and they are fastened not with five, but with only two dowels - diagonally. The slabs of the upper layer will be denser and will be fixed in five places as expected.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Step 15 - installation of the "skid" connector

This system provides for the installation of a slide - a connecting element of a U-shaped configuration, and the bracket itself in this case has this shape.

On the diagonal on the back of the profile there are two holes for fastening the studs with rivets.

Note! This node may look slightly different on systems from different manufacturers.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Step 16 - mounting the profile rack

The next stage is the installation of bearing guides, which in the section most often also have the letter "P". This profile is attached to the bracket on the sides behind the shelves and through the backrest.

Note! There are, of course, stainless steel systems, but they are very expensive.

Most often, galvanized steel is used for the manufacture of profiles. She herself is not afraid of corrosion, but during installation, you have to cut the elements, drill them for rivets, as a result of which the protective coating is broken. Private traders do not pay attention to such "trifles", and professionals immediately cover the places of the cuts with paint.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Step 17 - joining profiles at the ends

When joining profiles at the end, a gap must be observed to compensate for the linear expansion of the metal, which is at least 8 mm.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Step 18 - mounting the clamps

According to the format of the cladding modules , fasteners are installed in the right places - clamps.

They can look different, depending on the cladding option.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation

Step 19 - cladding

The last step is hanging the decorative material. Between it and the insulation, a gap of about 10 cm is provided. You cannot do more, because with a strong pressure of the wind, such a facade will buzz strongly. With less moisture, it simply will not have time to be completely removed, and the insulation can rot.

If you paid attention, our instructions skipped the stage of installing the diffusion membrane. And that's why.

Suspended ventilated facades: system features, installation
How hydrophobized insulation works

The membrane is not an obligatory element of the cake, its presence or absence depends only on the properties of the insulation. In this case, hydrophobized mineral wool was used for insulation - a basalt-based material impregnated with a water-repellent composition. Such cotton wool is not afraid of humidification, but at the same time it perfectly passes steam through itself, allowing it to freely penetrate into the ventilation gap.

Prices for composite panels

Composite panels

Conclusion

Systems curtain walls are by far the best solution to help reduce construction costs by reducing wall thickness. At the same time, the load on the foundation is also reduced, and this, again, is savings. But the most important thing is a high level of aesthetics of modern coatings, which retain their original appearance even after decades. That is why this option for arranging the facade, especially given the difficult climatic conditions in most of the territories of our country, is unlikely to ever lose its relevance.

If you choose finishing for the facade solely for reasons of practicality, you should pay attention to the corrugated board.

Strong, durable, not too expensive, this material is widely used in private construction. Read more about it in a special article.

Video - How the ventilated facade works

Video - Ventilated facade: installation of the insulation and cladding subsystem

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