Expanded clay - technical characteristics, GOST
It is almost impossible to do without expanded clay during construction. This unique and inexpensive combination of material properties will find application at various stages of building a house. You can use this material without hesitation, used correctly and in the required place, and yet it will not fail. Let's look at the technical characteristics of expanded clay.
Expanded clay - these are special granules, usually oval or round, and they also look like gravel - for this reason it is called "expanded clay gravel".
Expanded clay will be sold in bulk and in bags.
The granule processing technology will directly affect such characteristics as density, which can vary from 250 to 700 kg per cubic meter.
The smaller this indicator, the more porous expanded clay, and, therefore, will have higher thermal insulation properties, it is much lighter , but due to this, its degree of fragility will sharply increase, as a result of which more dense expanded clay is used for construction from 410 kg per cubic meter.
Moreover, the material will differ in size, fraction 0, for example, from 0.8 to 2 cm or t 0.
4 to 1 cm. Based on this size, the product should be divided into sand, crushed stone and even expanded clay gravel. Expanded clay gravel will be familiar to us, and at the same time, expanded clay crushed stone has gained immense popularity in Europe - it is angular in shape and has dimensions from 0.5 to 4 cm.
Such a product is obtained by crushing the expanded mass of expanded clay .
.. Expanded clay sand will be a filler, the particles of which have a size from 0.01 to 0.4 cm.
Sand is obtained by firing clay fines in mine or even rotating furnaces, by crushing large pieces or the main expanded clay mass. This is practically industrial waste, which is also used in business.
So, the properties are as follows:
- Does not rot.
- Will not lose its properties and will not be destroyed when frozen.
- Long lasting.
- Does not absorb water.
- Does not contain harmful impurities.
- Fire resistant.
- High strength.
Also, the products are absolutely safe for humans and the environment.
Expanded clay is a fast firing product for low-melting clays. From Greek, such a word as "expanded clay" is translated as "burnt clay", and this will fully correspond to reality. Despite the heat treatment, it will also not lose the properties that are inherent directly to the clay, but it also acquires additional and becomes porous.On their basis, it is possible to make expanded clay concrete blocks, the mechanical and thermal insulation properties of which make it possible to use them for the thermal insulation construction of walls, floors, ceilings, foundations and basements. Thanks to the expanded clay filler, such blocks also acquire its properties.
They are strong, lightweight, fireproof, acid resistant and others.
|Indicators||0. 8/2 cm||0. 4/1 cm||0/0. 4 cm|
|Density of bulk type, kg per cubic meter|| |
From 280 to 370
From 300 to 400
From 500 to 700
|Crushing strength, N / mm 2 (MPa)|| |
From 1 to 1.
From 1. 2 to 2
From 3 to 4
|Resistance to frost 20 cycles, loss of gravel mass,%|| |
0.4 to 2
0.2 to 1.2
|Percentage of crushed particles,%|| |
From 3 to 10
From 3 to 10
|Thermal conductivity, W / mK|| 0. |
|0. 0912||0. 01099|
|Water absorption, mm||250||250||250|
So, you know about all the properties of expanded clay, and one of the main uses of the material is a filler for lightweight concrete. Monolithic walls are erected from such material, and rough screeds are also poured. This will be especially true when it is required to lay a screed of an impressive size, however, it is impossible to overload the floor.
Expanded clay makes it possible to reduce the structural weight and its cost. The construction of expanded clay concrete walls will give high sanitary and hygienic characteristics, and they are also durable and at the same time have an affordable cost.
Moreover, expanded clay is also used as a heater, but it must be a highly porous type of material, and before using it as a backfill insulation, it will be necessary to perform calculations that are not very complicated, but only available to specialists. With regard to its capabilities in terms of thermal savings, we will only say that, as a filling option, it will lose to the rest of the heaters. The estimated thickness of the backfill made of expanded clay with a density of 600 kg per cubic meter is approximately 0.
4 meters. It's not effective at all.
At the same time, used in the manufacture of claydite-concrete blocks, it will significantly increase their heat-saving characteristics. Expanded clay will be actively used in the construction of dry screed. Nowadays, this method is extremely popular, because it allows you to get a solid base for linoleum, laminate, cork in a short time, literally in 1 day.
Due to its unique characteristics, including immunity to frost and moisture, it is actively used to fill the foundation during the construction of various structures and buildings. This will make it possible to reduce the depth of the foundation by almost a couple of times - from 1.5 meters to 0.8 meters, and this will not only lead to savings in building materials, but also to prevent freezing of the ground near the foundation of the building. By the way, the latter will be fraught with skewed doors, as well as window frames in the building.
By the way, expanded clay will be useful for those who lay heating networks near their home. Firstly, you will be sure that your pipes will heat you, and not cool ground. Secondly, in the event of an accident, you do not need to tediously and take a long time to dig the soil in search of a leak. Thirdly, after a successful repair, nothing will prevent you from reapplying the material, while it will not lose its excellent qualities. expanded clay can be used not just in construction.
With its help, it will be possible to improve the paths in the country and even increase the yield level of fruit trees, creating an unusual drainage system for their roots. This will apply to indoor flowers as well as plants. For such purposes, expanded clay is used, which is smaller in size. When used when pouring a foundation, expanded clay as a filler is not recommended. In this case, it is better to use any crushed stones, even granite or crushed stone.
Expanded clay is bad in this matter because it will have rounded and even edges, and this will not prevent the appearance of work on shear (shear-break) of the concrete mass. But the foundation should exclude cracks (that is, shifts) of the tape in cross-section.
You can insulate the house with expanded clay or other work. By the way, sometimes builders use terms such as perlite / expanded clay / aggloporite as synonyms. But is this legitimate? Such materials have, probably, only one similar feature - their production will take place by swelling of the raw material.
This is where all the similarities end. There are somewhat more coincidences in the properties, but it turns out, in the areas of application - they are incombustible, inert and light. Raw materials for the formation of expanded clay 0 algoporite, clay - rocks of the clay-containing type, perlite - volcanic glass, vermiculite - mica with water content. Expanded clay gravel is made by firing granules made from intumescent clays. It is a durable and lightweight core.
Its bulk density will vary from 240 to 700 kg per cubic meter. In the fracture, the expanded clay granule has the structure of a frozen foam. The shell, which is sintered and coats the granule, gives it a high degree of strength.
Expanded clay type sand (grains up to 0.5 cm) is obtained in the manufacture of expanded clay gravel (albeit in small quantities), and also by the method of a fluidized bed by burning raw materials in suspension.
Moreover, it can be obtained by crushing a substandard product - gravel grains larger than 4 cm and swar. Expanded perlite is made by firing volcanic glassy rocks (obsdians and perlites), which will contain a small amount of water. At temperatures from +950 to +1200 degrees, and water will begin to stand out, and perlite increases in volume from 10 to 20 times.
Expanded perlite is used as a filler to obtain lightweight concrete and molded thermal insulation products. Moreover, it is good in the role of acoustic sound insulation, as a component in plaster (a layer of plaster with a perlite content of 3 cm is equal in terms of thermal insulation properties to 0.
15 meter brickwork). Expanded perlite is used even for the production of decorative acoustic panels, and as a granulate for rooting plant cuttings, a substrate, for soil conditioning. And this is not a complete list. Expanded vermiculite is a porous bulk material obtained by firing hydrous micas. This aggregate is used to create heat-insulating lightweight concrete.
Agloporite will be obtained by firing clay-containing raw materials with an addition of up to 10% on the lattice of the sintering machine. The bituminous coal will burn out, and the particles of the raw material begin to sinter. The production of the composition is profitable when local types of raw materials are used for the manufacture - low-melting clay, and also loess rocks, and in addition, industrial waste - ash, slag from fuel and coal-bearing mine rocks. Agloporite is produced in the form of crushed stone and porous sand. The use of some kind of building material is required taking into account the tasks facing the construction.
For example, you need to insulate the floor of a room where the humidity level is high. In this case, the best option would be to use perlite - its hygroscopicity is higher. Expanded clay is much harder and more durable, and this quality can be useful in solving special problems. You should look at the bulk density of materials - perlite is much smaller and lighter, and this can significantly lighten the structure. If lighter and more porous expanded clay is used mostly for wall panels, then for algoporite the main area of use is lightweight structural concrete.
Algoprit concrete is used for the production of prestressed reinforced concrete structures of roofs and floors, large-span beams and trusses, bridge spans, etc.
Since the technical characteristics of expanded clay are excellent, it is often used. For example, if you want to insulate the attic on the second floor, and fill the floor between the floors with expanded clay (does it matter if it is large or small?).
Will it be a heater and is it required to lay a vapor barrier and waterproofing film on it and under it? Expanded clay has thermal insulation properties, but in this case it does not matter, because it makes no sense to separate one warm room from the second with a thermal insulation layer. After the roof is insulated, the cold will not penetrate through it and the entire home space from the temperature point of view will become one.
At the same time, when laying a layer of expanded clay, it is possible to achieve a reduction in noise that comes from above.
It is advisable to use the film, but only so that the expanded clay does not dust, they can be the simplest, polyethylene, which, as a rule, cover greenhouses.
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