What types of concrete are in terms of strength, brands and purpose, read more in the article! Concrete as a building material can be classified by strength, class, as well as by purpose and brand, which makes it possible to make the right choice for one or another type of construction work. Concrete mortar can be classified as a building material used to create base foundations. When using it, it is possible to build supporting structures of any complexity, as well as floors between floors and foundation.
In this case, for any object, a different type of concrete composition can be used, which can have various additives.
It is due to this that it is possible to classify concrete types by brand, strength, frost resistance and degree of resistance to moisture.
Let's look at what brands and classes of concrete are, and in which areas they have found their application:
Technical properties depend on the fineness of grinding and the amount of added quartz sand that is used in production.
In construction, this type of concrete began to be used relatively recently.
Such material is made on the basis of mineral binders and silica mineral additives. During construction, cellular material is used to insulate an already erected object.
What types of concrete are there in terms of strength? This classification is carried out taking into account the type of filler.Additives can be lightweight, porous, for special uses, and at various gravity levels. In addition, additives are divided into fractions, which play the role of a decisive factor in adding the main technical characteristics to products.
The final properties of materials can be frost resistance, strength, water resistance. The most commonly used additives are limestone, diabase, expanded clay, gravel and granite.
Classification by density and types of concrete fillers:
Lightweight materials are made with the addition of volcanic glass, expanded clay and other fillers with a porous structure to the composition. Lightweight concrete, namely, their classification helps to divide them into foam concrete, cellular and aerated concrete blocks.
For heavy concretes, additives such as granite or diabase (i.e., rocks) are used.
5 t / m 3 and above.
When dividing the types of concrete solutions by brands, there is an interval from 50 to 1000 marks. This value varies depending on how much cement is added per unit of concrete solution. Compressive strength is calculated in kg / cm 2.
Based on these data, the concrete grade is marked with M and the numbers following it.
If the digital value is high, it means that the solution is strong and of high quality. But there is also such a catch: the higher the grade of concrete, the more difficult it is to use it during work, since compositions with high density harden very quickly.
Please note, that this reason is important for the correct selection of the concrete composition in terms of density, which would be ideal for creating a particular object.
For example, when creating a concrete cushion for pouring a foundation, concrete of grade 100 or 150 is usually used. When creating blind areas, screeds and paths, the grade of concrete is increased and M200 and M350 are used.
Another M250 is great for the construction of any type of foundation that is used in the process of erecting steps and supporting elements made of concrete. In addition, this grade is often used for commercial construction.
With its help it is possible to obtain the foundation of a solid structure, as well as walls and monolithic blocks, road surfaces, whose properties make it possible to withstand a large mechanical load.
For this reason, the M250 and M300 begin to lose popularity on the market.With the technical properties of grades with an index of 400 and 450, you can use concrete to create hydraulic structures, where a priori there will be high loads.
The rest of the concrete grades, the digital indicator of which has exceeded 500, is used for those structures where special technical requirements are needed (dams, metro or dams).
Despite the fact that the ratio of the components that are available in the composition of concrete has long been calculated, the strength characteristics can still change. This fact can be explained by how high the quality of the components used in the composition.
For example, when preparing a solution, sand or poor quality water is used, and this will negatively affect the strength property of the finished product. In addition, with inaccurate adherence to the technology for creating a mixture, the composite characteristics and technical conditions of laying will also affect the production of finished products with the same classification, but different strengths.
For this reason, when classifying concrete mixtures, such a concept as a class is used.
It is important that this indicator may allow an error in the quality of the final mixture, but on condition that in 95% of cases the composition will fully meet all standards.
When marking by class, the letter "B" is put on the product, followed by numerical indicators. The most common are B-7. 5, B-15, B-20, B-30.
The completeness of the range ranges from 3.5 to 80. When creating design documentation for any type of construction work, it is important to indicate not the grade of concrete, but its class. Although grades are still indicated in some projects, they can be transferred to a class thanks to a special table of the ratio of the strength of the concrete solution.
In addition, the classification by class depends not only on the composition and its constituent elements, but also on the proportions.
For example, for the preparation of concrete grade M100 B-7.5 according to the standards, cement M500 is used. What proportions are needed to obtain a certain composition, you can see in the table of the composition and technical characteristics of the concrete solution (can be found on the Internet).
Classification of this building material by purpose and function makes it possible to make the right choice during the construction of a certain object. Usually, when creating special grades of concrete, the obvious problem of using an object in extreme conditions is solved.
This is reflected in the increased requirements for fire resistance, vibration resistance and frost resistance.
As a result, there are concrete compositions for general use and special purpose. In addition, there are hydraulic solutions and materials on the building materials market that are intended for the construction of airfield runways for takeoff and landing.
Let's look at the detailed classification:
With the help of special compositions, you can build strong nuclear power plants and other facilities that will prevent radiation leakage.
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