What is improved plaster, composition and its difference from a simple one
Before starting the repair it is worth understanding nuances of quality, as well as to figure out what the improved plaster is, which differs in many parameters.
Beginners are not so often interested in plaster, but in vain - for example, it is worth finding out how simple plaster will differ from better quality compounds, or what is the difference between the categories.
When starting renovation work, you should think about renovation or decide how and how best to finish the property, because you cannot ignore the issue of cost.
People will be practical in any business. It will be required in a difficult matter (plastering), which will take time, for example, to dry each of the layers.
You should also finish the same level for plastering the garage and hotel complex rooms - it is irrational, because these are multi-level objects. For this reason, simple (non-special and non-decorative) plastering should be done at different levels.
According to SNIP, the following finishing can be used:
Such plaster solutions are distinguished by their thoroughness of execution - the degree of closeness of the geometric characteristics of the plastered object to the ideal. Conventional plastering is sufficient for garages, bath rooms, basements, storage rooms and more. To create a normal coating, apply only two layers of plaster "under the chip" - the first spray, and the second primer with a maximum allowable thickness of 1.2 cm.
This is enough to obtain a monolithic protective coating without excess.
The improved plaster will enable the creation of a surface finish that meets medium to high requirements. The application of the mortar and the leveling process should be done "as usual".
The coating will be made of spraying, priming and covering layers, and in total this will reach 1.5 cm.On top of the improved coating, a finishing should be done, which does not require a great smoothness of the base surface - wallpapering, tile cladding or decorative type plastering.
High-quality plaster of walls is done "as a rule" according to beacons. The geometry of the walls is close to ideal, and the main difference from the improved one will be the presence of at least two layers and a perfectly smooth surface. In this case, the total thickness (due to the additional soil layer) will increase.
In addition to the variety of objects for which you need, the improved solution has the following main differences:
for example, the maximum vertical deviations will be 0.05 cm per meter (high quality finish) and 0.3 cm per meter (simple), and the permissible deviation for improved wall plastering is 0.2 cm.
In rooms where the highest requirements for the quality of finish are presented, high-quality plaster should be applied.
quality. It is achieved by using high-quality formulations and applying technological methods. For example, in contrast to the improved type of plaster, the use of beacons is mandatory when performing work. Also, be sure to supplement the primer layer. High quality subfloors may require certain types of finishes.
The presence of bumps and cracks on the finished surface of the plastered type should be completely excluded. It is imperative to grout in a circular manner and ramp-up.
As it is written in SNiP (building rules and norms) for finishing coatings, an improved plaster mixture in terms of surface quality can be with category K 1 and K 2 , that is, it is intended for finishing with sheet materials or tiles, as well as decorative plaster with a filler grain size greater than 0.1 cm. The method of application differs from the usual finish, the presence of a third layer of technological type - cover.
For high quality and improved leveling finishes, the substrate preparation is the same as for normal. They clean the surface from metal products, efflorescence, as well as oil and rust stains. It is necessary to remove fungus, mold, and also to disinfect the places of colonies. If the walls will have a finish, a layer of paint, wallpaper and paint, and still remove everything. Old plaster is removed if it is partially or completely unusable.
Defects such as chips and cracks must be repaired.To improve the adhesion of the material to the walls, use appropriate measures. In masonry and masonry, the seams should be expanded to a depth of 1 cm. For a similar purpose, on smooth concrete substrates, make incisions manually or even by a mechanized method. Shingle gratings should be nailed to the wood walls, and the reinforcement for improved plaster will not be separately stipulated by the standards - it is required for a large coating thickness, for wet facades and metal facades.
Use a brush, cloth or even a vacuum cleaner to remove dust from the wall surface, and be sure to prime and dry the wall surface. Room humidity should be no more than 8%. If you use beacons, then after priming, you should make measurements of the surface, and also determine the prominent point of the walls. It is not difficult to markup and create an auxiliary vertical plane, and then you need to mount lighthouse strips or make mortar beacons. When plastering with a mixture with cement, you can fix the lighthouse profiles and make mortar lighthouses out of gypsum in no case.
The composition of the improved plaster according to GOST is standardized (technical requirements for the plaster mass), for example, mobility, delamination and maximum particle size. It is allowed to use the same mixtures as for ordinary plastering. In addition to binders, the composition may include plasticizing, antibacterial, modifying additives, as well as sand and quartz chips. The preparation of the composition should be carried out according to the instructions (when purchasing dry mixtures) or the technology indicated in the technological map.
Mixing of the components should be carried out in a special container, and for gypsum compositions, usually only clean containers are taken, taking into account the swelling of the gypsum during mixing.
The dry mixture should be poured into a container with water. When making a cement solution, you should mix dry substances with your own hands, and then perform mixing. If a solution mixer is used to mix the composition, water should be poured into the pear first, and then bulk substances should be poured. For a lime-cement composition, after the water, add a dough or lime emulsion. The mortar mixture should be mixed to obtain a fully homogeneous mass.
This should be done using a mixer or in a mixer for solutions. After mixing, dry mixtures should be allowed to brew for 15 minutes, and then mix again. For primer, spraying and overcoating, the compositions are made differently, because the purpose of the layers is different.
The layer, which is applied to the base, is designed to increase the adhesion of the plaster coating to the walls. The solution should be kneaded in such a way that the consistency resembles not the most liquid sour cream.
Depending on the skill, the composition should be applied either by sketching or spreading. Beginners can use a spatula or trowel. The wall should be wetted before applying the cement spray.This is necessary so that it does not pull out or absorb moisture from the plaster. The solution, devoid of moisture, quickly begins to harden without gaining strength.
The thickness of the layer is not more than 0.5 cm. The top of the layer is not leveled, because irregularities should be left for the further layer to cling to. For example, the spray surface will be "lined" with horizontal lines with the corner of the trowel.
The main layer of an intermediate type is made from a solution of the same composition, but more viscous.
The mass should be applied with a spatula or trowel using spreading or spreading movements. The old coat must set before applying the primer. If plastering is carried out without beacons, and after leveling, the horizontal and verticality of the resulting surface should be checked. The use of beacons is not necessary here, because the installation of the beacons is controlled.
If the improved plaster will be made along the beacon profiles, then a layer of primer should be applied above the ribs.
Plastering should be carried out in sections up to a meter long. The solution that has been applied should be leveled. To make it easier, the rule needs to be moved not in a straight line or even in a zigzag manner. The wobbling of the tool will temporarily dilute the solution, making the layer more plastic. This should be fixed on the wall, and the cut off excess composition with a spatula should be applied to areas where there is not enough solution.
The unnecessary mass should be dumped into a container.
Excess gypsum mixture is not recommended to be discarded, because the mass that has been exposed to air can cause accelerated hardening of the solution, and serves as a crystallization center. After the composition has set, the beacon profiles should be removed. The remaining grooves will be filled with a viscous solution, and then level the filled areas with a wide spatula or a short rule along the top of the wall plane. The maximum layer thickness of the primer is 1 cm.
The composition of the improved plaster is excellent. The last layers will be a cover, and the solution for it is prepared with the same consistency as the spray. The difference will be in finer filler (up to 0.15 cm). Such a mass can easily fill the surface pores.
Apply the cover with a trowel or spatula on a moistened surface with a layer up to 0.2 cm, and leveling is carried out using a rule. Before setting the mass, the surface should be trowelled.
Strictly speaking, high-quality plaster of walls is carried out for the same technology as the improved one. And there are also minor differences:
- The presence of an additional layer of primer.
- Plaster only on lighthouses.
- The total thickness is up to 2 cm.
Please note that slight deviations are allowed.
Scope.For its intended purpose, improved plaster is often used for leveling walls in residential premises, as well as for external surfaces.
It is also used to decorate columns and cornices - decorative elements that are made of a variety of materials, to plaster brickwork and small buildings.
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