The foundation for a private house: design and types

The foundation for a private house: design and types Foundation for a private house : design and types

Projects of all capital buildings begin with the choice of the type of foundation, because the durability and strength of the future construction will depend specifically on the quality of the foundation.

The most solid and at the same time reliable foundation for a private house is a monolithic one. It is resistant to all kinds of environmental factors, as well as durability and strength.

It is for this reason that such bases are chosen for large industrial buildings, shopping and entertainment centers, multi-storey residential buildings and office buildings.

General information

The foundation arrangement is considered very costly in terms of finance, but despite this, its price is fully justified, because the foundation can withstand heavy loads for a long time interval.

The principle of a monolithic foundation is to combine reinforced concrete, and after hardening it creates a very strong structure that is able to withstand even dynamic types of loads. Due to this type of base, there is a guarantee for protection against the formation of cracks, soil mobility and other negative processes that can lead to the structure being damaged. All works on the foundation arrangement are distinguished by special preparatory operations. It is required to observe the accuracy of the technology and to correctly calculate everything in advance.

Details

Strip base

All types of foundations that can be attributed to monolithic concrete types of bases, there are a lot .

.. They differ in specifications, used components, and so on. Among the main varieties, they are extremely in demand:

  1. Columnar base - arrangement of a foundation of this type will imply a structure of different pillars, which are interconnected by means of concrete crossbars and poured along the edges of the future building. As a result, you get an excellent foundation for small buildings and low-rise buildings made of bricks or wood.

    The process of work in this case does not require the use of complex and heavy construction equipment.

  2. Strip base - the foundation according to the personal structure is a reinforced concrete strip, which is deepened lower than the level of freezing of the earth. The main parameters of the arrangement of this foundation, its width, height, structure and type of concrete used are determined at the design stage, based on the mass of the future building, its number of floors and structure. As a rule, these types of bases are chosen for building stone private buildings, which are equipped with a garage or basement in the basement.
  3. The foundation for a private house: design and types Monolithic reinforced concrete slab - chosen mainly on difficult soils, peat, clay soil or on the one where great depth of freezing.

    The main advantage of this foundation is that the slab is a solid foundation that can withstand enormous loads and at the same time maintain the integrity of the building.

  4. Pile foundation - successfully used on weak, filled or frozen ground, as well as on slopes. In this case, special attention is required when choosing a monolithic grillage and supports.
  5. The pile-slab foundation is a unique invention in the field of construction, used mainly for building multi-storey buildings. It is made of several extremely important elements - grillages, reinforced concrete piles, which are characterized by excellent stability and a high degree of strength.

Work on the arrangement of monolithic foundations involves the use of special construction equipment, because it is required to take out large volumes of land. In addition, reinforcement is made in several layers over the total area of ​​the building foundation. In this case, a lot of steel reinforcement is required, it must be welded in advance and tied using a special technology.

Features of creating a concrete base

The technology of building such a foundation structure for a house requires mandatory reinforcement by means of metal rods. This makes it possible for the base to move with the ground - in the winter it rises, and in the spring it begins to fall.

This prevents buildings from collapsing. These types of foundations are called floating, and they are extremely relevant when there is a lot of pressure on the surface of the base, when lining up on soft soil, periodically compressed, in seismically dangerous areas and in places where the ground freezes at great depths. It is convenient to build all types of buildings on such foundations and make major or cosmetic repairs, including repair of a soft roof.

The use of this type of foundation will guarantee a reduction in the amount of work on the ground, a reduction in labor costs and savings used in the building process. To date, different types of monolithic bases are used:

  • Solid.

  • Ribbed.
  • Box-type.

The last option is used when you plan to create a structure without a basement. In this case, the slab will begin to act as a floor. When building residential buildings, the slab is usually ribbed or tape.

Ribs are usually made from in-situ concrete, in some cases from blocks. For building in several floors, a box-type base is chosen that can withstand a large load. The edge height in this case will be equal to the wall height in the underground part of the building.

Belt type of foundation

In terms of the depth of its running, monolithic strip foundations can be shallow or deep. Foundations recessed at a shallow depth are mainly used on simple soil, which are distinguished by excellent load-bearing capacity, for low-weight buildings made of wood or just frame houses.

the device of concrete monolithic foundations of deep bedding is used mainly for heavy buildings. They are lowered below the level of ground freezing by approximately 0. 15 meters, provided that there is excellent bearing capacity.

The technology of a strip monolithic base provides for the arrangement of formwork, which gives the concrete the required shape and does not allow it to blur. But formwork requires not only additional spending on building materials, but also time for arrangement.

What is important to consider when filling

The foundation for a private house: design and types First of all remember that you cannot save on concrete mortar, and you also need to choose only the cement that is of high quality. The higher the quality of the sand, cement and additives, the stronger the concrete foundation will be. It is almost impossible to fill a monolithic base with your own hands without professional help and special equipment. To ensure the speed of the pouring work and the required concrete volumes, it is necessary to occasionally use several concrete mixers at once.

There are a lot of methods for pouring a concrete monolithic base - someone immediately feeds a concrete mix from a concrete mixer through a special box, compacting the ready mix in place, and someone uses a vibrator or other devices that can raise the total the price of work and the cost of the foundation.

You can equip such a foundation yourself, but occasionally you need to consult with professionals who have experience in different construction areas. The general technology for arranging a monolithic base for a house is universal. Working time may differ depending on the type of land, the availability of groundwater, the degree of shrinkage, as well as freezing at different times of the year, etc.

The main advantages of a monolithic type base

There are a lot of advantages:

  1. Excellent ability to withstand vertical and horizontal loads.
  2. High moisture resistance.

  3. Strength, reliability and rigidity, as well as adaptability to different types of soil.
  4. Ability to withstand various ground movements, increased loads and earthquakes.
  5. Durability.
  6. Internal placement of walls within a building, which can be anything. First you need to build a foundation, and then deal with the layout of the premises
  7. There are no insects or rodents.

  8. No expensive floor insulation or waterproofing systems are required.

For the foundation arrangement, quite a lot of materials are required - steel reinforcement, sand, additives, cement and crushed stone. This composition will guarantee strength, and also accelerate concrete hardening. It is required to take into account the structural features of such a foundation, as well as the complexity of the arrangement, because to create it, you need to use the services of only qualified craftsmen with vast experience. In addition, special construction equipment is required.

Waterproofing for the base

The types of foundations for a private house are different, but in any case, protection from water is required. The monolithic base has supports that act as capillaries in the presence of even low humidity. In this case, the unprotected base will begin to absorb moisture, which can lead to negative consequences:

  • Decrease in the degree of strength.
  • Moisture in the pores will begin to crystallize, which can lead to an increase in pore volume.
  • Dampness and mold appear inside the building.

If you do not waterproof the base in advance, then after a while it will become unusable, which affects the general condition of the building. In modern construction, various methods of protection are used:

  1. The coating will be characterized by a high degree of efficiency, simple arrangement and providing high quality moisture protection. Mastics or special emulsions designed for this are applied to the base. It is required to take into account the manufacturer's recommendations for application, and the composition can be applied in a simple or heated state.
  2. A modern and highly effective option for waterproofing - penetrating, which will provide a high penetration depth into the concrete.

    The mixture begins to crystallize in the pores, making it difficult for moisture to get inside.

  3. Roll method is the most popular, and in this case moisture resistant materials in rolls are used.

When deciding on the choice of certain options for waterproofing, taking into account the location of aquifers, the amount of precipitation in a certain area, as well as the presence of drainage systems near the structure, design features and financial capabilities of the customer ...

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