Many mistakes made during the construction of houses are typical and are repeated from time to time, even if a professional team is building. What comes out of this? Often the house is ugly ... How to avoid this, read this article!
Having planned the construction, study all the cycles of work.
Decide what you can do yourself, and at what stages you need to invite professionals. In the process, many additional questions may arise. If possible, consult with someone with experience in the matter. Otherwise, in the future, you will expect the costs of error correction, repairs or major restructuring.
It is more correct to learn from the mistakes of others, so we will consider the main mistakes made during construction.
It is better to start construction in the summer season. In winter it will be more expensive. All preparatory work must be carried out in advance (ordering a project, approval of the estimate) and, with the onset of heat, dig a foundation pit.
The main mistakes in building a house:
Each technology takes a certain amount of time. The foundation, for example, needs 6 to 18 months of sediment.
Let's take a closer look at these and some other typical errors.
Moving out of town, you need to provide for all the little things. A country road is often off-road, ruts and potholes. Get ready for this and then you can avoid disappointment.
If trees grow on your site, their roots can get under the foundation. The radius of the root system will be 1 m larger than the projection of the tree crown.
Do not carry out construction work within these limits.
In any case, it is better to protect the foundation. The protective material must be smooth and hard. A polymeric waterproofing profiled membrane placed on the outer surface of the foundation is suitable for this.
You can lower the foundation level or use the Larsen sheet pile.
When drawing up a topographic plan, the actual situation on the site is compared with the archive taken as a basis. Everything that has appeared since the last shoot should be recorded.
The slightest inaccuracy, for example, trees not marked on the topographic survey, can lead to additional costs. If in their place will be provided for laying an electric cable, you will have to correct the error.
The characteristics of the foundation depend on many things, and are selected specifically for each case.
Therefore, do not "deviate" from the project on the advice of the performer.
The best foundation material is concrete, but for a frame house we recommend using a pile foundation. And, if the team advises to build it from solid brick, first calculate how much it will cost you. The foundation can be built from this material, but it must be a very expensive brick not lower than the M100 grade.
Reinforcement in reinforced concrete fits in places where tensile forces occur.
In most beams and floor slabs, this occurs at the bottom.
In cantilevered balcony slabs and cantilevered floor beams, tension occurs at the top.
There is a situation when a load on an element leads to stretching of all sides. In addition to working reinforcement, structural reinforcement is made in reinforced concrete elements. Working reinforcement is located on the other side of the structural reinforcement.
This is fundamental.
Laying reinforcement in the middle is a dangerous mistake leading to structural destruction! If the reinforcement is laid in the middle of the beam, this will halve its bearing capacity.
Do not agree with performers who dream of simplifying their work at your expense. You may be asked to move away from the project when laying the foundation and, instead of a foundation cushion, pour concrete into the pit to ground level.
Not only will this method significantly increase the cost of building a foundation, it can just ruin it.
The wet concrete mix goes into the soil. The more free-flowing it is, the more mixture will flow out. This mistake will reduce the strength of the concrete. It is almost unrealistic to provide an airtight installation of waterproofing cushions embedded in the ground.
With this method, the laying of engineering networks through the foundation must be done before concreting or under the pillow.
And saving on time and work, does not compensate for the cost of materials and the difficulties encountered.
Is it reasonable to thicken the walls
Don't try to improve the insulation of your home by simply making the walls a little thicker. Better to invest in and improve attic insulation and ventilation.
Savings in heating, when creating a wall from blocks 4 cm thicker than the standard one will be 3 - 4%. It is more logical to invest in high-quality insulation of the attic and install a recuperator that returns some of the heat that goes away with ventilation.
Thus, 20 - 30% of thermal energy can be saved.
The walls between rooms must be soundproof. This is their main task. The problem with lightweight porous materials is increased audibility.
In Soviet times, the foundation and walls were often insulated with foam, and this is a mistake.
For construction, you need to use materials that are equal in terms of service life. The foam gradually crumbles, and voids appear in the walls and foundation.
It is more competent to insulate walls with mineral wool or foam glass. Non-ecological mineral wool, sealed into the wall and high quality insulated, cannot harm you.
Lack of heat channels in brick walls
When building brick walls, you need to arrange channels that remove heat from the outer walls during the hot period.
In summer, under the sun's rays, the house can get very hot. Heat ducts help circulate hot air and expel it, relieving stress on walls and preventing them from cracking.
Wood is an environmentally friendly, good building material. But the mistakes made when building a house from a bar greatly affect its life.
Humidity should be 20%. Use an electrohydrometer to measure it.
Be sure to control construction process. Unprofessional work leads to many defects.
In case of confusion, the insulation is moistened and condensation appears.
Lay the floor layers carefully. Expanded polystyrene underneath the concrete layer can deform under load.
A person of average weight can cause slight deformation of the expanded polystyrene board. But if he starts jumping on it, then the deformation will already be noticeable.
Tie function - even load distribution. She will do it if she is thick enough and properly reinforced.
Do not attempt to pour concrete screed on wooden floors or make them "warm".
During use, the tree swells, absorbing moisture and, shrinking, dries. A screed applied to a tree will lead to cracks or subsidence.
If you have a plot and part of the amount for building a house, you need to start building. Emergency expenses always appear on the way of accumulating funds, prices rise, and the professional situation changes. It turns out that time is working against you.
Real estate prices are unstable. Investing money in your home, even in small portions, is a more reliable financial solution than keeping it in a bank, because in the end you will get your own home.
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