Back in 2009, it was decided that it is important to take into account the problem of disabled people at the state level. For this reason, it was spelled out in the normative documents that all buildings should be equipped with ramp slopes for disabled people, as well as for groups of people who are considered to have limited mobility.
How urgent is the problem?
Few thought that one tenth of the population are people with disabilities. A third of them can only move in a wheelchair, but you rarely meet such people on the street.
The main reason for this is the impossibility of free exit from the house, since the construction of the house does not provide for a ramp.
At the moment, there are not always slopes for entry, which makes life difficult for people who move only in wheelchairs. Someone is ready to count the boards thrown on the steps for the ramp, but this is unacceptable, since safety precautions are violated. The parameters and standards are spelled out in a special document - it even indicates the appearance that the ramp should have.
The rules for setting slopes are described in a special rulebook. It becomes clear from them that the ramp is a stationary large-sized structure with a certain angle of inclination.
According to the rules, the angle should not be more than 10%. This device should be flat and long so that each disabled person can independently drive on it.
Another important difference from other structures (for example, ramps or ramps) is that there must be handrails on both sides. The width of the structure must be at least one meter (for one-way traffic).
The slope of the ramp for the disabled must be made of non-combustible materials, and the fire resistance period must be at least 2 hours.
This makes it clear that wooden structures are unacceptable.
If we talk about the arrangement of ramps that are made for people with disabilities, you should first pay attention to the slope of the ramp for the disabled. It is defined as the ratio of the required lift height to the length of the section, next to which there will be an inclined surface.
For example, if you create a ramp at a height of 10 cm near the entrance, we measure a distance of 1 m and from this segment we begin to make a ramp. The slope in this case will be 10% (10 cm: 1 m (100 cm)).
Such ramps should be installed in all places where the level difference is more than four centimeters. At each site we equip a platform, which should be approximately 1.6 meters wide.
Each march of the ramp makes it possible to climb to a height of no more than 80 cm. The slope should not be more than a height / length ratio of 1:12, when climbing to a height of 20 cm - 1:10.
But the cross slope is available only 2% (1:50).
A very important requirement is the installation of the sides. They should be present in those places where the structure does not adjoin the wall.The direct purpose of the sides is to prevent the stroller from slipping, and their height is 5 cm. If this was not provided for in the project, then a corner or a pipe is placed along the edge.
In addition, you need a railing. According to the norms, they should be double for greater protection. The upper ones must be at least 90 cm, the lower ones - not lower than 70. For preschoolers, the railing is 50 cm. round.
It is important that they are continuous and parallel to the ramp, taking into account additional structures.
Several installation options
In different situations, the design is developed in different ways. Sometimes it is required to provide for a U-turn, in others - rest areas. Sometimes a fence is not required. It can be omitted if the rise is not higher than 15 cm, and the slope angle is not more than 8% (with a ramp length of up to 180 cm).
In this case, it is important to remember that for every 6-9 meters you need a recreation area. If the ramp is not more than 10 m, the site can be made solid.
The most suitable ramp width is 90-100 cm. It is perfect for one-way traffic. If the calculation is for two-way traffic, then the width should be at least 180 cm.
If the project does not provide for the possibility of installing a railing in the middle of the structure, then the angle at which the ramp for the disabled should be changed. According to the norms, such a design takes place at an inclination of 1:15 (6.65), since a disabled person can only hold on to one handrail. This means that the angle of inclination must be chosen so that he can physically go up and down alone.
Ramps without standards
Unfortunately, it is not always possible to make convenient ramps to all the required ramps.
Sometimes you have to create ramps for non-standard projects. They are used in places without the technical ability to make them according to norms. Although GOSTs are not observed at the same time, such ramps give at least some opportunity to get people into the buildings they need, and they are often made at the initiative of users.
So, constructions that are not made according to the standards are maximum 85 cm wide, but on the sides they still make a fence that will protect against falls and help to hold on when lifting. These structures are made of asphalt or sidewalk to provide the best grip and minimize falls.
The maximum slope of the ramp for the disabled in such cases is up to 18%, but this is permissible only in cases where there is simply no way to do it differently. Ideally, the span will not be more than 7 meters long. On such ramps, disabled people with healthy hands can easily climb on their own.
Non-standard ramps are allowed in residential buildings where wheelchair access is required. But in the middle of such a ramp, steps are made for a person who will push the stroller in front of him.
The width of these steps should not be more than 0.3 m, otherwise some strollers will not be able to enter.The sides are not required in this case.
Sometimes channels are installed on the ramps. In practice, they make no sense.
On many wheelchairs, the front wheels are closer than the rear - a lot depends on the model. In this case, it will be difficult to install the channels so that they fit everyone. They are allowed only for residential buildings, so that they fit a certain model of a stroller.
But a very important point - they should be placed so that they do not interfere with others. If the stairs are narrow, then it would be nice to make an outboard or folding ramp.
It is important to pay special attention to the area for turns. It is required in cases where the direction of the ramp changes. In width, such a platform should be as wide as two ramps, and in length at least 1.5 m. If the turn is 90 degrees, then the width should be greater than the width of the ramp, the depth should be 1.
4 m. In this case, it is advisable to increase the area.
It is necessary to figure out how to install the ramps to the entrance. Much in this case depends on what type of entrance door, how they open, and so on. It is important that the disabled person has access to the side of the door where the opening handle is located.
It is also important that a person can turn around, turn to the ramp and doorway.
It is convenient to make the door open to the side opposite to the accessibility device. If, due to the design of the building, it is impossible to make a large platform, you can "drown" the door - create a niche, thanks to which there will be a place for a turn.
When creating a ramp slope for the disabled, it is imperative to make a platform in front of and after the inclined plane. But it so happens that architects are mistaken and make a ramp without a site, although this already devalues the presence of a slope.
Without a platform, a person simply cannot use the ramp. In addition, the stroller must fit on the site, which should be placed strictly horizontally.
Important: you cannot position the ramp directly from the wall / door.
Human needs - we achieve conditions
Considering that many designers buildings, shops and houses do not believe that they should create ramps, the legislation has enshrined administrative responsibility for cases when managers refuse to install a ramp.
Refusal to install is fraught with a fine both for individuals and legal entities.
In fact, you can always make a slope for entry, and if you cannot make it according to the norms, no one will penalize for abnormal slopes, along which disabled people can only move with the help of an accompanying person. Control over compliance with these requirements rests on the shoulders of the executive (federal) authority, as well as on the authorities of any constituent entity of the Russian Federation.
For example, near the pulp, you can make a folding ramp, which will be with an inclination angle of 50%.Naturally, under such conditions, a person with disabilities will not be able to expand or lift him, but he will already be able to leave the house with an attendant, and in the absence of a structure, this will be completely impossible, since in order to lower / raise a person with a chair, several person.
The rights of people with disabilities
Many people who belong to low-mobility groups do not even know about their rights.
Each such person must be provided with a means of accessibility without fail, otherwise it is a limitation of human rights. For this reason, the managers of housing and communal services figure out how to make a ramp and create all the conditions for the movement of people with limited mobility. This includes not only people with disabilities, but also parents of small children who are transported in strollers, and other categories of the population who find it difficult to move independently.
In such cases, when contacting housing and communal services, the consent of the rest of the residents is not required to install the ramp. However, during installation, this will not solve all the problems of disabled people - people will continue to put cars and billboards in front of the entrance, restricting movement or making it completely impossible.
Remember: any person who belongs to a group with limited mobility has the right to sue and demand the installation of a ramp. In addition, people with disabilities and other people who need a ramp can demand moral compensation. Those who refuse to install disabled people bear administrative (and sometimes even criminal) responsibility.
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