Long burning oven: brick, top burning, description
The high cost of electricity and gas began to force them to look for other ways for inexpensive heating.
Traditional solid fuel stoves are not the best choice, but new designs that can run on a small amount of fuel and still have high heat output are attracting attention.
This type of heating device includes a stove with a long-lasting top burning wood. In them, the fuel almost does not burn, but only smolders, and having laid the fuel once, you can warm up the room for 17-18 hours. An automatic feeder is not needed, since fuel is consumed in small quantities and is different, that is, chips and sawdust.
But such devices can run on wood, with good heat output, and at the same time consume several times less.
Potbelly stoves quickly burn fuel, warm up the room for a short time and everything cools down quickly. To constantly keep the room warm, you need to regularly add fuel, which is not always convenient + high consumption. There are other products that heat much longer, but at their cost there are big drawbacks - low efficiency and it is often required to lay firewood.
The reason for the low efficiency is that the furnace has direct access to oxygen, the emission of combustion products is free.
There are other problems:
A stove that heats up for a long time has no such drawbacks, and its efficiency is much higher.
There are a lot of such devices, but not all of them work according to the same principle. Heat begins to form not during open combustion, but due to pyrolysis. Under the influence of high temperatures, the fuel only smolders and releases flammable gas. They start to ignite and burn, as a result of which a lot of heat is released.
The slow process occurs by regulating the oxygen supply. When the fuel starts to ignite, air intake is minimized.
Thus, it will not be possible to use an ordinary Russian stove, as this will only lead to sad consequences. Gases can get into the room, and this can lead to poisoning. The oven with long heating is equipped with a sealed door, an adjusting device, a damper, and this excludes the ingress of gas into the room.
Heating devices of this type should be chosen because:
At the expense of the last point - if you make a long-burning oven with your own hands, it will cost even less.
How can you use a stove with a long burning type? The choice of design and model will depend on the tasks facing the unit. If you need it for a summer residence or at home, it is better to use a stove with a water jacket, which will combine water and stove heating.
water will help spread heat energy through the system and heat the room, while at the same time the case will warm up, which will increase the efficiency of heat transfer.
In a boiler for long heating, the water will cool down quickly when it is turned off, and the water will become cold, but the stove will cool down slowly and give off a little heat. For a summer residence, it is such a stove that is preferable, rather than solid fuel boilers. It has a coil in which the water will be heated, and sometimes it needs to be installed directly into the firebox, and this is unsafe. The high temperature that is generated by the combustion of the gas can cause the water to boil and the coil collapse.
It is better to install the water heating coil in the flue gas cap. This solution is ideal for heating summer cottages, and will increase heat transfer. The design of the device is chosen taking into account the area of application, and for a small garage, bath and greenhouse, it can be used without a water circuit. A stove that warms up the air is convenient because the intensity of combustion can be adjusted. It perfectly warms up small rooms, which is ideal for baths, but not suitable for a house where the owners live all year round.
To make the oven yourself, you must first determine the place where you want to put the device. This must be a room with electricity and a large area. Now about the materials. It is easiest to use a steel barrel with a volume of 200 liters for the oven. But in general, the volume does not really matter, only the heat transfer of the device is required from it, you can use a gas cylinder and even a fire extinguisher.
But all de, volume - from a 27-liter cylinder you can make a stove for heating a bath, a device for a very small room from a fire extinguisher. The thickness of the metal is also of no small importance, since the thicker it is, the longer the furnace will work. If nothing else is suitable, use steel sheets or thick wall pipe. The metal must be free of damage and rust.
Some more materials are also required:
From the measuring devices you will need a plumb line, a tape measure, a building level, and also a trowel, a hammer and a mallet.
Before starting production, you should familiarize yourself with the features of the device. First, you should make a drawing based on the materials that you plan to use. A steel pipe with a diameter of 40 cm or cast iron is suitable as the main material. The walls should be more than 0.
5 cm in thickness, and then the stove will serve for a long time (especially, cast iron). Thin metal will not last long and the walls will quickly burn out.
Note, that cast iron is preferable as a material of manufacture, but it is more difficult to work with it than with steel. You will need electrodes and welding skills.
The device can be divided into 3 parts.
The lower zone contains solid fuel that will smolder slowly. Above, there is a smoke evacuation and gas combustion zone. Between them there is a loading zone, which will gradually decrease as the fuel burns out.
For each circuit, an air regulator is required, which will determine the burning time. A pipe is welded in the middle, and through it the air enters the chamber.
As the daily rate of fuel burns, the disc will gradually lower, and in order for it to slide without obstacles, it is made slightly smaller than the internal size of the combustion compartment. Below the distributor is a 5 cm impeller, if it is larger, it will accelerate the combustion process, and this is undesirable.
Oxygen tube with a diameter of 10 cm is required for the drum. The holes inside the distributor should be 9/5 cm, as otherwise a lot of oxygen will enter the combustion chamber, and then the fuel will burn faster. Above the supply pipe, install a damper to adjust the draft.
There are two manufacturing options - an air-heated oven and a boiler that will heat the air and water for the room. The water will heat up inside the coil and flow into the radiators.
It is most convenient to use a gas cylinder or barrel. In them, you need to carefully cut off the top, as this material will come in handy. Unscrew the valve in the cylinder in advance, drain the remaining gas and leave everything for several days until the gas smell disappears.
A place should be cut in the body for fixing a sealed door through which ash can be removed. From a sheet of steel with a thickness of 0.5 cm, cut a circle that will be slightly smaller in diameter than the inside.
A pipe should be welded in the middle to supply oxygen.In the lower position, it should protrude slightly above the surface of the heating device by 15 cm.
From the bottom, weld 6 impeller blades with a height of 5 cm at a certain angle. For models that are made from a gas cylinder, use the upper part of the case, where you need to cut a place for the pipe, use a lid for this in the barrels. The air tube must move freely up and down. Weld the legs on the bottom of the body for stability, and cut a round hole on the side of the upper part and attach a pipe with a diameter of 15 cm to remove the smoke.
It is more difficult to make a device out of sheets of steel, since it will require accurate calculations and marking of each part that will have to be cut and welded.
A device of a round shape is almost impossible to make without special rolls for bending the rolls, unless of course you use thin sheet metal (and this is irrational). If it is not possible to twist the sheets, you can also make a rectangular oven.
Such a long-burning stove for the house will outwardly resemble a stove, but there are changes in the design that will increase efficiency. The main differences relate to the blower, which is made of a pipe with a diameter of 8 cm and the shape of the letter "L", but for convenience it can be made straight. Install a blind plug on the threaded branch pipe, which will regulate combustion with high accuracy when turning on the thread.
Important! The correct oxygen supply can be determined by a speck on the chimney - at first it should be farther from the stove, but over time it will shift towards it.
During operation, the potbelly stove is heated, and therefore it is used as a cooking and heating device. On the outside, the screen should be installed at a distance of 5 cm from the walls. Do not weld on the ribs, as the unit will work effectively even with a hot interior. The screen will play the role of protecting the room from IR rays, and prevent the room from overheating.
It will reflect at least 50% of the rays and maintain optimal temperature performance.
You can effortlessly convert an ordinary potbelly stove into a stove long burning with a water circuit. Together with the screen, you will need to install a U-shaped water heater made of metal, which will reflect IR rays. Install at the same distance as the screen. Installing side-by-side will cool the oven and reduce efficiency.
The potbelly stove, which generates 15 kW, can heat a room with an area of 25 m 2 . If hot water heating is not required, a domestic water heater can be used.
The desire to remake a potbelly stove into a long-burning boiler is irrational, since quality indicators deteriorate due to an increase in size. A large firebox will have sluggish circulation, there will be insufficient gas and the room will not warm up well. If the furnace is filled with fuel to the limit, there will be no room for the formation of a convection vortex.
The conclusion is simple - the size of the potbelly stove will determine the properties of the pyrolysis gas. But still there is a powerful boiler for water heating, and although it is difficult to replicate industrial samples at home, you can try.
Such a device operates on the cheapest of all possible fuels, which burns well and provides enough thermal energy. often sawdust is sold for a penny or even thrown away, but only in special devices they can burn and give such an effect. The design features of the long-burning furnace provide for the ability to strongly compact the wood pulp so that there is no air between its parts.
In this form, they will not burn quickly, but only smolder and give off heat, which is enough to heat 1-2 rooms.
The installation can be assembled according to the same principle as other devices with a vertical loading type. Ideally, it is better to use cylindrical metal products, but if this is not possible, it can be made in a rectangular shape. Unlike a stove-stove, where firewood is placed on the side, in this case there is a compartment for loading sawdust from above. This differs from other models with a tapered tube, which is inserted in the middle of the air regulator.
The design is in the drawing below.
Pour sawdust inside and tamp it more tightly so that the combustion process is longer. Remove the pipe - it is easy to do due to the tapered shape. The hole that forms in its place will be a chimney and a supply for oxygen, which supports the combustion process. Sawdust should be set on fire from the side of the blower and the process will start.
It is important that the chimney is set up correctly - with a high draft, the heat will go outside, and with a weak draft, there will be smoke in the room.
Interesting, that combustion occurs in the center of the furnace compartment, and the walls are heated weakly. If you run a long chimney through the room, the efficiency of the device will be higher, and it is ideal for greenhouses.
To keep the long burning stove working safely, follow these rules:
Use a pipe with a diameter of 15 cm and a length of 5 meters to exhaust the smoke. With a smaller section of the pipe, the smoke will not be well removed, and with a larger section, strong thrust will appear. An adjustment damper should be installed on the chimney. Also, do not forget to remove accumulated condensation; this should be done regularly.
If a non-separable chimney is made, it must have doors for cleaning. Heavy condensation can easily be prevented by making a sandwich flue.To do this, a layer of glass wool should be laid between pipes with different diameters, and the pipe should be covered with a deflector on top so that rain and snow do not fall.
If there are children in the house, the stove should be lined with bricks. The masonry will act as a protective screen so that no one gets burned by accidental contact, as well as walls and objects are protected from overheating.
It will also be an excellent heat accumulator. So, the brick will accumulate thermal energy, and give much less to the room than the iron body. The foundation must be installed if the floor under the stove is made of combustible material. It is not necessary to deepen it much, since the weight is not very large.
The upper combustion stove should be heated, adhering to certain rules.
First you need to remove the cover, take out the adjustment device (pipe with a circle for pressing). After that, we load the furnace with fuel, and the maximum height is the lower part of the chimney hole. Try to put any fuel more densely, and in the center on top there should be dry twigs, a rag or paper dipped in kerosene. Install the clamp, cover and throw a lit cloth or paper to the pipe. Matches will not help, as they will go out on the fly.
When the fuel warms up well, close the air damper and the operation will be in the smoldering mode.
The injector is a device for full use of the burning time. These are one or two pipes with holes that go into the firebox. In the walls of the heating apparatus, holes should be cut in diameter, and then the injector should be welded. It will be located at the same height as the center of the flue pipe, but in front of the firebox.
The injector will serve to feed the combustion process with air, and the upper wall will warm up even better. When the device goes into the smoldering process, the injector stops working.
As you can see, there are many options and all kinds of designs, and we only talked about a few - those that are the most popular. We hope that the knowledge from this article will help you make yourself a reliable and simple apparatus that does not require constant maintenance, and it will delight you with its work for more than a dozen years!
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