Facing bricks have been in stable demand for a long time. All of its varieties are widely used for facade decoration, construction of fences and small architectural forms, and are in demand in interior design. The most decorative is a brick with a textured cut on the front side, called "torn brick". What is its peculiarity and how is the installation of the material carried out?
Torn bricks outwardly resemble ordinary ceramic ones, on the one hand, as if chipped along the entire length. For its manufacture, not firing, but the method of pressing under very high pressure is used, as a result of which durable products are formed, in their characteristics as close as possible to natural stone.
They contain cement, limestone, shell rock, marble and dolomite flour, as well as dyes. Components such as clay and sand are not used in the production of torn bricks.
Brick pressing method
The presence of coloring pigments, which are added to the mass before pressing, makes it possible to achieve high-quality uniform coloring throughout the entire thickness of the material , and molding in presses gives perfectly regular geometric shapes. Decorative chips for "wild stone" are created in the process of processing products after pressing. To do this, two methods are used: cutting the edges with a machine tool and mechanized decorative splitting.
This material is divided into types in depending on the shape, structure and location of the textured cut.
Shapes of torn bricks
The first type has a higher strength and is used for the construction of fences, laying fireplaces, facing the basement and foundation, and the construction of load-bearing walls. Hollow products are less durable, but they have better thermal insulation properties, exert less stress on the base, and ensure high strength of the masonry due to the penetration of the solution into the cavities. Such material is used for facing facades, when decorating interiors, for the construction of fences that are not subject to heavy loads.
Hollow and solid brick
But there is also a third type - angular, in which textured chips are located on two adjacent edges at once.
Smooth edges can have a matte or glossy polymer coating, many manufacturers produce glazed torn bricks. The color palette is also very wide: on sale there are bricks of white, gray, black, various shades of red and brown, yellow, even blue and green. So there is plenty to choose from, you can embody the most original ideas in decorating your home.
Brick color palette
In addition to the decorative appearance, torn brick has other advantages:
There are several standard sizes of torn bricks: standard, thin, basement, narrow. Product parameters may vary slightly from manufacturer to manufacturer. The material is delivered to the consumer packed in polyethylene on pallets 1x0.75 m, and thin and basement ones are additionally packed in thick paper, 30-35 pieces each.
Brick sizes (standard, thin, basement, narrow)
It is advisable to order brick in full at the manufacturing plant, and not from intermediaries. Showing excellent quality goods at the exhibition, some resellers, after ordering, bring to the buyer illiquid assets mixed with normal bricks.
|Specifications|| Values |
|Strength grade|| M 150-300 |
|Moisture absorption|| 4-11% |
|Frost resistance|| F 50-200 |
|Weight|| 2.85- 3.6 kg |
|Length|| 240-250 mm |
|Width|| 65-120 mm |
Torn bricks also have disadvantages:
For this reason, air gaps should be left in the masonry;
Any facing brick, and especially torn, requires more skill and accuracy when laying than ordinary building bricks. The textured surface is easily stained with the solution, and after drying it will not be possible to remove it completely. Each seam must be perfectly even, of the same thickness and depth, otherwise the cladding will look very sloppy.
In the absence of experience, you need to start with small structures or the least visible part of the facade. Do not take to work if you are limited in time - rushing without skills and experience will not give the desired result.
Facade of a torn brick house
First of all, it is necessary make sure that the base can support the weight of the cladding and check the condition of the building walls. So that the masonry does not sag and does not collapse over time, the foundation tape should be monolithic, without cracks, the width should correspond to the width of the facing brick or slightly exceed it. The foundation is carefully examined around the entire perimeter, the cracks are embroidered with a grinder, cleaned and poured with fresh mortar.
Do the same with exfoliated areas. If there are protrusions on the foundation, they must be knocked down and the surface leveled.
Monolithic tape of the foundation
Next, the quality of the walls is checked. The first step is to eliminate cracks and through holes, peel off peeled plaster, treat areas affected by the fungus. Torn brick is not susceptible to mold, and from the outside it perfectly masks such defects, but if you leave the fungus on the walls, it will destroy them from the inside, at the same time having a negative effect on the inhabitants of the house.
Be sure to check the evenness of the bearing walls relative to the vertical. Minor differences do not play a role, therefore, additional measures are not required, and differences of more than 2 cm will need to be taken into account when connecting the cladding and bearing walls. If a wooden facade is faced, it should be treated with an antiseptic primer and wait for the surface to dry.
Treatment of a wooden facade with an antiseptic primer
Deep penetration primer
For work you need to prepare the tools: a trowel, a grinder for cutting bricks, a plastic template for applying mortar, strong threads or twine, a level. In addition, you will need a bucket of clean water and a rag in case the solution gets on the front side of the brick.
After everything is ready to work, you need to carefully consider what type of masonry to use.A certain arrangement of bricks allows you to form various patterns, and you can enhance the decorative effect by using material of two or three colors, as well as using a contrasting solution in color.
The most popular types of masonry:
Such laying requires skill and high precision.
Types of brick laying
If you have little experience in such matters, choose the classic monochromatic brickwork - this will greatly simplify the working process. When using material of two or three colors, draw a sketch in advance, indicate the location of bricks of each color in rows, so that it is easier to navigate when performing masonry. But it is better to entrust complex colored ornaments to specialists, since here it is easy to make a mistake even with the scheme, and it will no longer be possible to correct the defect, except to completely paint the wall.
Manufacturers of torn bricks recommend using cement-sand mortar for facing masonry in a ratio of 1 to 3.
Cement must be used M400 and M500, and sand must be sieved through fine sieve. Due to the low water absorption of the material, the mortar is made slightly thicker than with standard masonry. In order to favorably emphasize the texture of the brick, a coloring pigment should be added to the solution, but it is very important to choose the right colors:
Cement M500 and M400
To get a white solution, take white cement and the same color sand, red solution obtained by adding dry red lead, black color is given by carbon black or ordinary soot. A brown color is formed by adding soot to a red solution.
All these components are commercially available, so you won't have any problems with staining the solution.
Important! The mass fraction of dyes should be 3-6% of the mass of cement. A higher pigment content leads to a decrease in the strength characteristics of the solution.
Cement and mixture bases
Step 1. A torn brick without mortar is laid around the perimeter of the facade to determine how much material is needed and how many bricks need to be cut.
Particular attention is paid to corners and openings, because this is where the most accurate fit is required.
Step 2. Using a grinder, cut the required number of brick halves for the first 5-6 rows. This will save time when facing, you will not need to be distracted from the main process.
We cut the required amount of bricks with a grinder
Mix the thick solution. Since there is less water in it, the setting is faster, and therefore the portions of the mix should be small. The dye in the form of a dry powder must be sieved through a sieve to avoid lumps, and stirring is carried out until the solution becomes completely uniform in color.
Step 4. Start laying from the corners.
A layer of mortar with a thickness of not about 1-1.5 cm is applied to the base so that it does not reach the edge by 9-10 mm. They lay out the first corner brick, trim it, tapping it with a trowel from above. The second brick is fastened by first applying a solution to its end part. The joint width should be 8-10 mm.
In the same way, another 2-3 bricks of the lower row are laid out on each side of the corner. In the process of laying, check the horizontal and vertical of the laid elements with a bubble level.
We start laying bricks from the corner
Step 5 . Move on to the second row. On a flat surface, several bricks are placed in a row, with the end part up.
The bricks should be placed as tightly as possible to each other. Next, take a template for applying the solution, apply it to the first row of masonry, and distribute the solution with a trowel. Carefully remove the template, after which the mixture is similarly applied to the butt side of the bricks prepared for laying. After removing the template, the bricks are separated with a trowel and alternately laid out in the second row at the corner of the facade. Be sure to perform an offset by half a brick on each side.
Go to the second row
Step 6. The angle is laid out to a height of 4 rows, after which they proceed to the formation of the second corner. Everything is performed according to the scheme described above, observing the maximum accuracy when applying the solution. If it accidentally gets on the front side of the brick, you must immediately wipe it off with a clean, damp cloth.
After raising the corners to the desired height, pull the thread between them at the level of the first row, distribute the solution over the base and lay out the bricks, as described above. There is only one difference: every 4 bricks, the vertical joint is left empty, without mortar, to ensure ventilation of the facade. As a rule, using a template, the seams are neat, of the same depth and width, so there is no need to correct the masonry.
We pull the thread at the level of the first row
Step 8. After the fourth row, it is necessary to reinforce the masonry and binding to the load-bearing wall.
Manufacturers do not recommend increasing this distance, due to the large weight of the finishing material. For reinforcement, a metal mesh is used, and for binding the cladding to the facade, long anchors or metal rods with a diameter of at least 5 mm are used, which are buried into the wall at an angle of 45 degrees by about 80-100 mm. About 3-5 rods should be attached to each running meter.
Reinforcement of brickwork
Step 9. Every 10 rows, you need to take a break in work for about 4 hours.
This is required for uniform shrinkage of the mortar and maintaining the evenness of the seams. You can do no more than 20 rows per day, otherwise the masonry will "float" under such weight. The traversed areas must be covered with plastic wrap from above to protect against precipitation. When the weather changes and the air humidity rises, it is recommended to suspend the work, covering the entire perimeter with polyethylene.
Thanks to precise geometries and the use of a template, the need for jointing is eliminated.
After finishing the cladding, it is enough to brush the masonry to remove small particles of mortar and dust. Many experts recommend treating the masonry with water repellents after the mortar is completely dry, which increases the water repellency and at the same time improves the appearance of the cladding. Such compositions are applied in two layers with an interval of 60 minutes. Processing is carried out in dry, calm weather, at temperatures above +5 degrees.
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