To preserve energy and heat in the house, it would be ideal to have a situation in which thermal insulation will be arranged continuously throughout home.
But in the house there are places where the thermal insulation system must be interrupted (for example, around windows and doors). Heat leakage through them will directly depend on the quality of these units.
If compared with the rest of the walls, then these places can be characterized by a lower resistance to heat transfer, and they are called cold bridges. When they appear, heating costs also increase.
It is generally accepted that cold bridges in houses can cause up to 1/3 of heat loss.
Cold bridges is the reason dampness and mold on the walls. A decrease in temperature on the internal surfaces of the enclosing structures will cause a shift in the dew point and, as a result, condensation of water vapor.
Dust appears in places where dampness occurs, and black and dirty spots are formed. And dust is an ideal breeding ground for most microorganisms and house fungi, so stains quickly become moldy.
There are a lot of possible places where cold bridges may appear in a frame house. For example, in the frame structure of a house, the cold bridges are racks. If the racks are made of wood, then the bridges will be poorly expressed due to the reduced thermal conductivity of the wood.
With the thermal insulation of the ceiling, the floor beams will also be cold bridges, and the rafters are bridges for the roof insulation. If the wall has a multi-layer structure, this can become problematic when installing articulated attic walls or external reinforced concrete stairs.
A very weak point of the appearance of cold bridges is a reinforced concrete floor slab.
The reason for this problem is the following: the outer and inner masonry walls shrink differently ... In order for there to be no displacement of the planes, it is necessary to move the floors between the floors beyond the outer limit of the house, and two walls have to be supported on them.
The insert is installed as follows: leave a special gap in the concrete layer, attach a heat-insulating material to the reinforcement and after that it is poured with a concrete mixture. This solution is more economically correct, although the steel frame gives off heat, and cold bridges may re-form in the wall . There is a more expensive and more effective option: to make a special gap in concrete and reinforcement, install heat-insulating building materials in them, and even then fill everything with concrete.
Bridges of cold can be divided into those that can be avoided, and those with which you will have to put up with.
Below we will consider the places of formation of cold bridges:
Even with the warmest windows and doors, they will always be colder than a solid monolithic wall. And if large windows are installed in the living room, this particular wall will have more reduced heat transfer resistance. The large windows on the south facade let in much more heat than they give out.
A fairly simple way to eliminate the formation of cold bridges on the balcony is the use of heat-insulating balcony parts and elements. They consist, as a rule, of fittings and a thermal liner. The fittings of the balcony parts and elements are made of high-grade steel with low thermal conductivity.
These elements and details can be used in split walls. There are different types of balcony elements and parts available that can be used for each type of balcony.
Most often it is necessary to attach something to the facade of the house: balcony fencing, canopy over the entrance, and more. These elements are attached directly to the wall and not to the insulation layer. Thanks to this, point bridges appear. You cannot avoid them, but now special anchors have appeared on the construction market, with which you can make high-quality thermal insulation of cold bridges.
Chemical anchors are usually divided into two types: ampoule and injection.
The use of ampoule anchors is as follows.
It is necessary to drill a hole in the wall, then clean it with a nylon brush; then insert an ampoule containing resin and hardener in different ratios into this hole.
When driving a fastening rod into the hole, the ampoule is destroyed and its contents are mixed; after a few hours, the anchor can be safely loaded. The use of injection anchors is associated with the use of an assembly gun, in the cartridge of which resin and hardener are contained in different sections and ratios.
They will mix when the cartridge is squeezed and through a special nozzle flow into the hole, into which the fastening rod is then inserted.
The use of chemical anchors excludes all wall contacts with steel fittings and elements, as a result cold bridges are prevented.
Boards of expanded polystyrene or mineral wool should be joined very tightly butt otherwise gaps may remain between them.
As a rule, builders try to remedy the bad situation by filling all the gaps with glue, which has poor thermal insulation properties and parameters compared to an insulating building material.
And as a result, these cracks become open bridges of cold, and this significantly reduces the effectiveness of insulation.
An expansion gap must be left between the basement insulation and the wall of the house.
Place a special sealing tape in it.
Problems arise when they forget about this tape during construction: in this case, a strong linear bridge is formed cold. When exposed to high temperatures, plastics flow out of the crevices.
In addition to tape, you can use other means, such as a backing cord - it holds the mass well and greatly limits its excessive consumption.
Masonry joints in the masonry will also act as cold bridges .
A wall made of thermo-efficient blocks can lose its heat-saving characteristics and properties, if it is supplemented with ordinary silicate bricks, this will inevitably lead to the appearance of cold bridges.
Seams very good freeze and much faster than blocks. That is why, when insulating cold bridges, a mortar is used for masonry, which is less heat-conducting, for example, using pearlite sand, and the seams are made as thin as possible. Well-made blocks, in which the geometric parameters are strictly standardized, must be laid on special glue. Then the thickness of their seam will be only 3 mm, and the effect of cold bridges will be minimized.
And when laying from ordinary sand-lime bricks, this is unattainable.
( 1 grade, average 5 of 5 )
Posted By: Work Style |13, Nov 2020
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Posted By: Work Style |13, Nov 2020