Types of equipment for laser cleaning of metal

Types of equipment for laser cleaning of metal Equipment for laser cleaning of metal from rust - varieties and features

With prolonged contact of steel and moisture or air, a layer of iron oxide begins to appear on the surface.

In this case, the product will not lose its visual appeal, but this is not the only unpleasant consequence. In the future, the metal will accelerate to rust, and as a result, the item may lose its basic functions.

Equipment for laser cleaning from rust is a modern method of cleaning metal surfaces, which has become a more effective alternative to chemical methods of stopping corrosion.

Laser cleaning technology

In order to perform laser cleaning of metal from rust, a special apparatus is required that will focus a powerful stream of light.

The principle of operation of the device will be the ability of the pure metal to reflect laser radiation when substances with more complex compositions begin to absorb it.

As a result, a layer of rust, which can include a mixture of three iron oxides, various contaminants, and hydroxide films, begins to accumulate energy, heats up and begins to peel off from the base. Its power of laser-type equipment is high, then the plaque begins to melt, and then evaporate.

Laser-type ablation

Most often, laser-type cleaning for metal from rust is performed by means of ablation - pulsed radiation that causes the oxide film to evaporate. The latter will "rise" above the surface in the form of a plasma cloud, and then begins to dissolve.

Ablation will occur at the boundary of a pair of phases - gaseous and condensed, and begins due to a sharp temperature drop (the equipment is capable of heating the base to +16550 degrees).

The order of operation of the device is as follows:

  1. Types of equipment for laser cleaning of metal Scanning (diagnostics). The laser will determine the depth of treatment by means of a short pulse emitted by the working head.
  2. The main stage - in the automatic mode, the power will be selected, and also the ideal removal of rust will be carried out.

Consider the second method.

Desorption

This word can be understood as a conditionally softer effect on rust with a beam of photons, which will cause the separation of the layer surface in the form of flakes. For such installations, a small power will be characteristic, which leads to heating without major transformations. As a rule, to obtain the desired effect with an oxide-type film thickness from 50 to 75 microns, the thermal energy density should not be less than 100 W per square centimeter, and the diameter of the ion-photon beam should not be less than hundreds of microns.

In addition to heating, it will accelerate the achievement of the result by the presence of impact forces of the emitted light beam.Laser desorption, due to the gentle effect on the surface of metals, can be used on products with decorative types of finishes, corrugations, various holes and grooves, as well as complex parts.

Equipment for cleaning laser type

All mechanisms of laser cleaning of metal are automated as much as possible, and at the same time human efforts are reduced to a minimum. Laser types of machines may differ in design type, power, size, and certain of them will be equipped with a remote-controlled camera that is connected to a computer. For metal processing, laser types of installations are equipped with very long cables (from 50 meters or more).

By the type of power, the devices can be as follows:

  • For a small area - from 12 to 20 W (laser with a small size on the battery).
  • For medium-sized areas - 100 to 400 W (compact portable systems).

  • The most powerful installations up to 1000 W (stationary and portable devices).

Please note that, as a rule, such tools can work against rust or for other purposes without changing the working head for 100,000 hours. After that, the part will need to be replaced in order to continue to operate the structure. For people, laser installations are safe, and they are also equipped with special protection against the escape of rays beyond the dimensions of the workpiece.

Advantages of the method

Laser cleaning of metal from rust is used everywhere, and at large industrial enterprises, and even in small car services.

With the help of small batteries with low power units, it is quite likely that you can clean metal from corrosive elements with your own hands in the simplest garage.

Other advantages of the laser method in comparison with the use of cleaners, converters and mechanical cleaning are as follows:

  • No harmful emissions, and also safety.
  • Lack of human contact with the processing surface.
  • Highest quality and precision cleaning.
  • Quiet even at very large installations.

  • Enormous surface processing speed.
  • Ease of making adjustments and adjusting the device.
  • Automatic shutdown of the laser type of the emitter after the end of the process.
  • Ability to work with a large number of alloys and metals.
  • No need for consumables.

  • No risk of damage to the material, as well as a uniform harvested layer.

A little about the use.

Field of application

The laser has a wide field of application, and with this it is possible to distinguish between micro and macro zones and large-scale operation.The processing costs will also be different, because they depend on how much the structural unit itself costs, on its power, complexity and amount of work.

Micro-application

Such an area of ‚Äč‚Äčapplication will imply work on stripping wires during welding, poultice of various electronic type connections - connectors and terminals.

In the other way, in addition to the laser, it is almost unrealistic to cleanse small and flat wires from the old insulation layer without damaging them. The light beam will remove a layer of insulation with a thickness of at least 1 micron or a silver sprayed coating, and at the same time, without touching the copper type component.

In addition to being used in electronics for:

  • Thin cuts.
  • Holes in the wires.
  • Notches on the board surface.

Please note that, if necessary, by means of laser types of installations, it is possible to remove the polyamide coating from the cooling or brake systems, which is required for stripping the ends of the connection pipes. The laser method allows performing the most complex operation without damaging the aluminum core.

Macro application

Equipment for laser cleaning is not the cheapest method, but it can be fully justified if it is necessary to process expensive products - ingots, jewelry , as well as valuable items. This technology will also find application in the production of rubber products at the plant - a beam of light is able to effectively remove plaque from molds for tires after hundreds of fillings. If you clean the molds chemically, the process will take a long time, and the surface of expensive products can be damaged.

The laser is able to prevent such consequences and minimizes the time spent on removing corrosive elements. The time for laser processing of the mold will not be more than 1 hour, compared to 8 hours, which require a chemical method. The product also does not need to be dismantled before starting work, and this is much more convenient in technical terms and will eliminate problems during assembly in subsequent times.

Large scale use

Laser rust removal is used in the field of accessories for spacecraft, aircraft and others. Back in the 1990s, most military and passenger aircraft were cleaned of paints and plaque as part of laser maintenance.

Such devices are used to remove old lead paint from ship hulls, bridges, other large-sized structures, as well as buildings and railway cars.

What models of lasers are produced

German lasers

The most popular on the market can be considered devices from the company Klin Leiser (Germany) , which produces an incredibly large line of laser-type equipment.The most popular is the compact "backpack" laser, which consists of three separate types of modules,

, which are connected via fiber optic cable:

  • Types of equipment for laser cleaning of metal Backpack with power supply.
  • Laser head.
  • Video surveillance device.

Please note that when the unit is turned on, the surfaces will be scanned, and the depth of rust will also be detected, and only then the laser stream can be directed at full power to the contaminated area. The remains of elements that are destroyed by rust, which have detached from the metal, are carried away to a special container. The process will end automatically when the surface of the products becomes perfectly free and the light flux directed to it will be reflected.

Small battery-type devices with low power are very popular among archaeologists, adorers of antiques, because they make it possible to remove a layer of contamination even from valuable and delicate items. Medium-sized devices with power up to 400 watts will look like compressors, and they are usually used in automotive workshops, as well as in small-sized industries.

Large and powerful installations are large-scale and cost many hundreds of thousands of dollars.

Chinese lasers

Products from China are also in high demand on the market for cleaning structures, because usually their cost is much lower than that of European installations. production. For example, an apparatus such as LY CL 100 is used for cleaning metal products from rust, and also has a power of 100 W and is used without changing the head for 50,000 hours.

Here are the other characteristics of the device:

  • The repetition rate is from 1.

    2 to 25 kHz.

  • The speed of the work is 7 meters per second.
  • Linear speed is 70 meters per minute.
  • The wavelength is 1064 Nm.
  • The weight of the device is 70 kg.

Results

Such mobile devices can be used to clean the car body, remove paint and varnish layers, or even clean out areas that have rusted. The use of a laser can be considered a safe and effective method of updating parts, and it also helps to increase the lifespan and greatly save on the purchase of new ones.

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