Types of flat roofs and the main types of materials for roof installation- Overview + Video

Types of flat roofs and the main types of materials for roof installation- Overview + Video Do-it-yourself flat roofing, as the construction of modern high-rise buildings takes place, involves the construction of flat roofs with a soft waterproofing coating roofs. Melt and rainwater is discharged by the drainage system.

It includes water collection, separation from garbage, fluid intake into the system, removal and delivery of moisture to the general sewage system of the structure.

Information about flat roofs

What is a flat roof

A flat roof is called relatively conditionally. To collect water that accumulates on the roof, it is necessary to arrange a system that delivers it to the purification and intake points along the valley.

This process is carried out by means of a flat roof slope device. The slope of the roof plane from the parapet to the funnel must be at least 3 0 . Water is collected naturally in a valley with a receiving funnel.

Types of flat roofs

Signs of flat roofs are the materials used for their construction.

Soft roof

Soft roof.

It is made by heat brazing bitumen roll materials in several layers. Layout of layers in order from the reinforced concrete slab:

  1. Types of flat roofs and the main types of materials for roof installation- Overview + Video cement screed,
  2. a layer is laid vapor barrier film, it prevents the ingress of liquid from the side of the ceiling and removes possible condensate moisture from the insulation.
  3. Followed by 2 layers of insulation. Its slabs are staggered to cover the cold bridges from the overlapping seams of the underlying layer.
  4. Waterproofing layer.

    It consists of bitumen deposited materials in rolls. For reliability, the seams of the first layer are covered with a top sheet of waterproofing material.

Inversion roof

The principle of its construction is completely opposite to the order of laying layers in the welded roof. Insulation layers are located above the waterproofing layer of the deposited material. For the last layer, a brazed geotextile is used.

For the ballast top layer, gravel or fine crushed stone is used. It is necessary for protection from wind and hail.

Membrane coating

This type of building protection is distinguished by the presence of a polymer membrane. It completely replaces the welded soft roof. The priority is that there is no need to use open fire.

It is fastened by means of a mechanical system.

This will allow you to arrange coverage even in frosty conditions. The canvas is monolithic for the entire roof area. The seams are soldered with a special electric iron.

Operated roof

Obtained by modifying the roof with an inversion system.

The ballast layer is replaced with a concrete screed and covered with ceramic tiles. Such roofs are used to organize recreation areas.

The main types of materials for roof installation

  • Floor slabs . Roof base. It is made of heavy concrete M-350 on a steel frame.

  • Sand , sifted dry. Suitable for screed.
  • Cement M400 . A mixture is prepared from it for a roof screed.
  • Vapor barrier film .

    Its specialization is the protection of insulating material from the penetration of steam, and its condensation inside the layer of thermal insulation. It works one way. It removes moisture and does not let it through.

  • Insulation . There are many options for material for laying on the roof.

    The main heaters include:

  • Plate heaters, expanded polystyrene, extruded polyurethane foam, glass wool, mineral wool.
  • Roll insulation. Glass wool, ecowool.
  • Bulk materials. Solid and crushed expanded clay, crushed foam concrete scraps, sawdust and wood shavings
  • Sprayed materials.

    Polyurethane foam, nanoisol.

Waterproofing material. It is divided according to the method of application and according to the level of location:

  1. Bonded rolls; bikrost, bipole, roofing material, stekloizol, uniflex. The material for the base layer is smooth on both sides and can be glued. The rolls of the upper layer are sprayed on one side, consisting of fine granite or mica chips.

  2. Membrane polymeric materials. Polyvinyl chloride film, TPO membrane, EPDM rubber cloth on a reinforcing mesh.

Flat roof slope device

The accumulation of water on the surface of any material will inevitably lead to damage. The temperature difference between the material in a dry place and under water leads to the stress of the layers and, in the future, the appearance of a network of microscopic cracks. They will cause ruptures under the influence of ice in winter.

It is necessary to correct the slope in order to extend the life of the waterproofing layer of the roof. It is done in several ways:

  • Types of flat roofs and the main types of materials for roof installation- Overview + Video The method of device slope of the coating surface by means of a cement screed device. The old method, which consists in applying a concrete solution to glass wool slabs or to a layer of loose insulation with different thicknesses. It is customary to start the slope from the parapet to the center of the roof. The remaining layers of the roofing cake are laid in the usual way.

    The result is the necessary slope for collecting the liquid in the central outlet channel to direct it to the funnel. This method has a lack of high-quality performance due to the large screed laying area. It's hard not to make a mistake.

  • Application of specialized materials with the required configuration. The cement screed is laid with this method in an even layer.

    The layers are then collected according to conventional technology.

Starting from the top layer of insulation, technological changes begin. They consist in the fact that slabs with a bevel along one edge are used. They are made from expanded polystyrene or hard mineral wool. The shape of the slab of each row has a different bevel and organizes the necessary slope of the roof in the overall composition to drain water from the roof.

A layer of waterproofing materials is laid on top.

This method has positive aspects:

  1. Low load on the base of the roof.
  2. Moisture-free during production.
  3. The required amount of material is always available at the construction site.
  4. Low transport costs for delivery.

  5. Installation time is reduced due to the absence of waiting for the mortar to set.


For each object, the unleveling device method is selected individually. It all depends on the roof area, budget, and technical need. A roof with proper drainage can only be done once. In the event of a performance error, you will have to incur large expenses.