Many of us have long dreamed of building a country house on our own land plot. The fact that such houses are usually needed for one season makes it possible to erect lightweight buildings and save on foundation construction. However, underestimating this stage of construction work would be a big mistake, which could subsequently result in the destruction of your country house.
To choose the right foundation, you need to take into account many factors, such as: the level of groundwater, soil composition and the depth of freezing of the earth. Based on this knowledge, you can easily not only avoid deformation and displacement of the foundation, but also choose the right support structure for your future home.
Let's dwell in more detail on each of the three parameters:
In fact, this factor should be given the most
close attention, because, firstly, ground waters located close to the surface increase the freezing of the soil and can be the cause of flooding of the base of the building and basements, and in the long term, all this can lead to the destruction of the foundation.
So, if it was possible to find out that the groundwater level is quite close to the surface, then it is worth abandoning the construction of basements. And besides, it makes sense to drain the foundation of your country house.
The base, in this case, should be raised above the ground and stand on screw metal piles covered with an anti-corrosion compound, or on asbestos pipes replacing the piles.
Rocky soils (rocky, clastic ) are best suited for construction.
They are considered to be not heaving bases, which are good conductors of water, and are not subject to deformation in winter. Any foundation can be placed on such soil.
Clay soils and peat soils, on the contrary, accumulate a lot of water, freeze well in winter, from which they swell later. This can lead to the destruction of buildings. For such soils, there are foundations that can resist heaving and prevent shrinkage, for example, a shallow strip, pile-screw or monolithic foundation.
Usually depends on the climate and SNiP is installed, the foundation is deepened below this level. For example, the level of freezing of the Moscow region is 1.6-1. 7 m., And Leningradskaya - 1.
5, your foundation should be below this level.
All foundations are divided into two categories:
Construction of buried foundations is justified only when erecting capital high-rise buildings with complex communications.
For a lightweight country house, shallow foundation is best suited. They are reliable, durable and such foundations can be built with your own hands.
The following are the most popular four types of foundations of a country house:
Each has its own advantages, there are disadvantages - you should choose, first of all, according to the relief, soil composition, etc., we talked about this in more detail above. Also, when choosing the foundation for your country house, you need to make careful calculations of the load that he will have to withstand and think about its structure.
When planning the foundation, it should be remembered that its price and general costs for it will cost about a quarter of the total cost of construction.
And so, let's take a closer look at all four types.
There are two types, it is either a monolithic reinforced concrete strip , which is laid in a pre-prepared trench, in which the reinforcement is already placed.
Concrete mortar is poured along the entire perimeter of the building and internal load-bearing walls. This method is often used for individual construction.
Or the strip type of foundation can still be a prefabricated structure of reinforced concrete blocks that are laid in an open trench and fastened together with reinforcement and cement.
Brick and rubble stone can also fit under the tape. The depth of such a foundation should be 20-30 cm below the level of soil freezing.
Strip foundations are stable, wear-resistant and suitable even for heavy brick buildings. They are irreplaceable if the construction of the house involves a basement or garage. Tape foundations can be used both on heaving and non-heaving soils.
But they are not suitable for deep-freezing soils. This type of foundation requires a lot of effort, time and money.
Such a structure is economical, consists of recessed pillars, which protrude outward and are located in the corners of the house, at the joints of the walls and in the areas of partitions. Such a foundation is well suited for one-story houses with low weight (frame, wooden, panel board).
The posts are connected with metal or wooden beams.
In most cases, the pillars are laid out of bricks, concrete blocks, asbestos pipes. In rare cases, the pillars are poured from reinforced concrete.
Such a foundation is often performed by the method of bored wells, which includes the following stages:
It includes a group of piles that are immersed in the ground and connected by a grillage. Excellent for swampy soils prone to swelling. This structure is easy to deploy and does not require complex earthworks and construction works.
Piles are suitable for small brick houses, as well as frame buildings and log cabins.
For the construction of such a foundation, piles pre-prepared at the factory are used.
Among other things, they can be made directly in the ground : first, wells are drilled, pipes are placed in them, and we fill their cavities with concrete.
To connect the foundation into a single structure, you will need a grillage.
There are several types of piles for foundations:
The foundation of a country house made of twisted piles is capable of withstanding a load of up to 8 tons. It is mounted very quickly, while requiring almost no preparatory work.
An important plus - such a foundation will cost a third less than the same tape structure.
An important plus - such a foundation will cost one third less than the same tape structure.
By the type of soil, the pile foundation is not suitable only for rocky ground.
When there is a danger of flooding, the pile foundation is considered the best option, since the piles can always be increased to the required height.
It is monolithic, it is a monolithic reinforced slab resting on a gravel-sand cushion.
This type of foundation is usually called floating, since it has the ability to rise and fall when the soil swells, without damage to the structure.
The slab is reinforced with reinforcement, and practically becomes the "rough" floor of the country house being built.
Such a foundation is suitable for all soils, especially problematic and prone to heaving.
A monolithic slab is able to withstand almost anything, any weight, even a brick house with 2-3 floors.
It is strong, this type of foundation has a high bearing capacity, a wide range of applications in problem areas, and is durable.
Such a foundation has only one drawback - the price that will have to be paid for a large amount of concrete and reinforcement.
When choosing a foundation for your country house, be sure to think about the advantages and disadvantages of each of the above models, because the financial costs of the foundation will cost you from 30 to 40% of the value of your home. And if you choose the wrong support, or make a mistake in its calculations, you will have to rebuild the whole building again.
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