Types of foundations for building a house: which one is better to choose? Tips + Photos & Videos

Types of foundations for building a house: which one is better to choose? Tips + Photos & Videos The foundation is the basis of the entire structure, which is indispensable in construction. After all, all the load that the structure exerts falls on it.

A correctly selected type of foundation and its arrangement will allow the house to stand firmly, not succumbing to roll and all kinds of deformations, in any climate, taking into account the characteristics of the soil.

In construction, there are several basic types of foundations, which differ depending on the design, production material, type of soil. All of them have their own advantages and disadvantages.

Classification of types of foundations

Construction of a strip-type foundation

About the structure

Types of foundations for building a house: which one is better to choose? Tips + Photos & Videos This is the most demanded type of structure, most often used in the construction of buildings. It has a simple construction technology, but the structure turns out to be quite cumbersome, and the work requires a lot of time and effort. Also, it should be borne in mind that a lot of material is spent on the construction of a strip foundation. Often this type of foundation is used when building a private house on unpretentious soil.

The strip foundation in its appearance resembles strips or strips of reinforced concrete, while repeating the outlines of the house.

Such a base can withstand a large weight of buildings, it turns out to be strong and reliable. The formation of the tape takes place under the external and internal walls. Experts say that the strip foundation device is best suited for buildings made of brick, concrete, stone, namely those that have a huge weight.

Also, the advantage of the design is the possibility of building a basement or underground garage. Many are intimidated by the huge investment of money and labor in the construction of the strip foundation, but as a result you will get a solid foundation that can last more than 150 years.

It is easier to follow the rule - it is better to invest thoroughly once and be calm than to eliminate the shortcomings all the time. The main thing is to follow the rules for building a foundation.

Installation technology

The strip foundation is laid 0.2 m deeper than the freezing point of the earth. The thickness varies depending on how thick the walls will be, taking into account the material of the construction and the layer of plaster on them.

In this regard, the following types of foundations are distinguished:

  • Recessed strip foundations are used as a basis for large structures, as well as buildings over several floors. Consumption of materials taking into account the depth of occurrence is quite high.
  • Shallow strip-type foundation is used in the construction of small houses made of wood or stone. The depth is 50 - 70 cm. This type of foundation is installed in the event that the owner of the site aims to save money on building a house.

    Cheapness and ease of installation are the main factors that make it popular.It is clear that such a foundation cannot be used for multi-storey construction, or in cases where a private house will have a lot of weight. It is most suitable for lightweight buildings. Also, it can be used in areas with cold climates.

In order to build a strip foundation, it is necessary to dig a trench that repeats the shape of the building and the walls inside.

Next comes the leveling stage and filling a sand cushion, which must be carefully tamped. A layer of sand is poured at a level of 10 - 20 cm, rubble in the same ratio. The thickness of the sand layer depends on the depth of the trench. Next, you need to make a permanent or removable formwork, put a mesh of reinforcement, pouring it all with concrete.

Advantages of the strip foundation:

  • strength;
  • reliability;
  • you can build a basement or garage;
  • can withstand enormous building loads.

Cons :

  • Large expenditures of funds and efforts for construction;

Columnar foundation of glass type

Differences

Types of foundations for building a house: which one is better to choose? Tips + Photos & Videos The main difference between this type of base from the previous - in lower costs of money and labor resources. The base is placed on pillars, and not with a solid tape. They are located at every corner of the building, intersections of walls and points of greatest load. The foundation is characterized by strength, low construction costs, and does not need waterproofing materials. Unlike strip base, not suitable for heavy buildings.

Often used in small construction.

The technology of the columnar foundation

The pillars are installed by burying them into the ground at a distance of 1.5-2.5 m. The material for the pillars is brick, rubble concrete, stone .

.. The space that forms after the installation of the posts must be filled with gravel and sand, and then filled with concrete for additional strength.

In order to keep warm in the underground space, and to protect the foundation from dirt and moisture, it is necessary to make a so-called filling. This is the wall you need to connect the pillars.

You can make it from rubble masonry, brick or concrete. If the house is being erected on an area with heaving soils, a pillow of sand 15 cm thick is made under the filling, and the walls are deepened into the ground by 15 cm.

The advantages of a columnar foundation:

  • Economical consumption of funds and materials.
  • Simplicity of work.
  • Strength.

Cons:

  • Can be used in the construction of light buildings.
  • It is not possible to build a basement or garage.

Note.

Installation of a glass-type foundation is a type of columnar base, since the structure is very similar. Used for the construction of bridges, buildings of the nuclear industry or other industries.

It is used extremely rarely in the construction of private houses.

Monolithic foundation of glass type

Differences

Types of foundations for building a house: which one is better to choose? Tips + Photos & Videos This type of foundation is often used in the construction of small buildings. To build it, you do not need to hire equipment and a work team, you can do it yourself. The base is columnar and tapered. The features of the installation of both the first and second types correspond to the rules for the construction of such foundations.

We talked about them above.

If the house has a lot of weight

... then a monolithic base is poured under it, which repeats the outline of the building completely.

One of the advantages of this design is that if displacement processes occur in the soil, the slab will move with them, and with it the building itself. Therefore, the walls will not succumb to destruction, while maintaining their strength. The cost of a monolithic foundation is about 15 - 20% of all construction costs.

Pile foundation

The foundation on piles is the best solution if you are building a house on difficult ground. For example, such a foundation is suitable for installation on heaving ground and groundwater close to the surface.

Also, it is good news that the financial costs for its construction are minimal. It is considered to be one of the most economical types of foundations. Piles (pointed pillars) are taken as a basis, which must be installed in the ground. The structure of the house evenly distributes the load on the pile foundation.

Types of pile foundations, depending on the material:

  • Concrete.

  • Wooden.
  • Reinforced concrete.
  • Metallic.

Types of pile foundation, depending on the shape:

  • Types of foundations for building a house: which one is better to choose? Tips + Photos & Videos Round.
  • Rectangular.

  • Ring.
  • Square.

Types of pile foundations, depending on the installation method:

  • Screw.
  • Hammer-in.
  • Bored.

Screw foundation

About the structure

Piles of this type can be mounted independently by screwing them into certain places. For work, there is no need to order special equipment. The depth of groundwater and the level of freezing of the ground determine the dimensions of the piles. The pillars must be screwed into the ground vertically. To facilitate work, you can use a special tool.

Note

Helical pile - a pipe made of metal, with a blade attached by welding. The piles are deepened into the ground by 1.5 m, adhering to a certain level. Then they are poured with concrete and strapping is carried out on top.

The foundation on screw piles is very popular because of its excellent load-bearing properties.

This is achieved due to the fact that in the process of screwing in the pile, the loose earth becomes dense from the blades. Also, in order to build such a foundation, you do not need to spend a lot of labor and money. The installation of the screw foundation for the house will take a maximum of several days, and the installation can be carried out all year round.

Pile-driven foundation

The peculiarity of such a foundation is that piles need to be sunk or driven into the ground using vibration technology. This makes the process difficult to carry out on your own.

The foundation on bored piles

This is an average version of the foundation, often used in the construction of residential buildings. The poles are made at the construction site and immersed in prepared pits. Before starting work, they make notes at the places where the piles are installed, then they pull out the wells manually or using equipment. A sand pillow is poured into the pits and pillars are placed. Reinforcement is immersed inside and concrete is poured.

The gaps between the ground and the piles must be covered with gravel and sand, and also filled with concrete.

Floating foundation

This type of foundation is popular in areas where groundwater flows quite high. It is also suitable for installation on heaving, bulk and low-bearing soil. The floating foundation has a simple structure, but at the same time it is characterized by strength and reliability.

Construction of a floating foundation begins with digging trenches with a depth of 70 cm and a width of 50 cm.

Around the perimeter of the pit, rubble concrete is laid in 1 row. A strip of reinforcement mesh with a width of 35 - 40 cm or rods from reinforcement in the amount of 3 - 4 pieces is placed on top. The joints must be tacked with welding or wrapped with metal wire. Then you need to lay out another layer of a row of rubble concrete and build on the basement.

Upon completion of the installation of the base, it is necessary to wait a week wet, and 3 days dry.

A floating foundation for small buildings is constructed according to a slightly different principle. It is necessary to dig a trench 60 cm wide.Further, 10 cm of this size must be covered with rubble, what remains, namely 50 cm, with sand. Then everything is soaked in water to achieve foundation shrinkage. Then you need to add more material to reach the initial level.

At ground level, concrete tiles are poured under the posts, and then brick posts are placed. You can also use small concrete blocks. At the end, it is necessary to make a roofing material covering, and to carry out strapping with the help of boards, which are pre-treated with antiseptics.

Results

In this article, we talked about the main types of foundations for the construction of private houses and buildings of various types. We considered each type separately with the definition of their advantages and disadvantages, areas of application.

We learned what types of foundations are suitable for installation on clay soil, with a high groundwater table, depending on the design features of buildings.

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