In order for your house to stand for a guaranteed long time, you need to choose and make a good foundation. For a brick house, a reinforced foundation is required. At the base of a foam block house, you can make the foundation simpler. The construction market does not stand still and now there are many materials that allow even beginners in construction to make an excellent foundation for a brick house with their own hands.
Thanks to the development of modern technology, there are many types of bases.
They differ in design features, as well as in characteristics.
There are criteria according to which the option of the foundation is chosen: the size and mass of the house, the features of the soil, the relief on the site, the presence of groundwater, whether the soil freezes through.
A feature of a building made of brick or stone is its high weight. On average, a brick house with one floor can be much heavier than a two-story wooden house. The density of bricks intended for construction is 1.
5 tons per 1 kb / m. The density of pine or spruce is 500-600 kg.
ATTENTION: according to construction standards, it is not recommended to lay a shallow strip or foundation of pipes. These options have low load-bearing capacity and the pipes are prone to corrosion.
The area of the building is also important.
If you are going to build a house with two floors, then the foundation will have to be made more solid. When pouring the base, it is best to comply with all SNiP standards. Prepare a layout with all the calculations that are required for the construction.
When expanding, bumps appear, deformation of the base occurs. For such soils, houses on stilts are suitable.
IMPORTANT: If you decide to put piles, then make sure that they lie deeper than the ground freezes.
This is an important indicator when laying the foundation. The higher the water table is, the more likely heaving will occur.
A strip foundation cannot be built on such soils. The best option would be a monolithic "floating" slab or pile. The disadvantage of such foundations is that you cannot build a large building.
When building a house with two floors, it will be necessary to greatly strengthen the foundation.You can also build drainage and make a tape base.
Remember that the foundation should be placed below the level from which freezing occurs. For example, this is an ideal option for the south of Russia, the level of freezing there is no more than 0.5-0.7 m. In the north, the depth of freezing is more than 1.
5 m, so at a price it is very expensive.
IMPORTANT: when laying a foundation of tapes, when the water is high, good waterproofing can be organized. If it is not provided, then water will seep through the cracks and cracks in the basement, while mold and fungus will multiply. Moisture in the winter will expand and destroy the foundation.
A brick house has two features: it has a large shrinkage, a large mass.
Shrinkage is a problem for all houses built with small materials. The brick shrinks well, but when there is stretching or bending, it easily collapses.
The worst thing is uneven shrinkage, in which there are:
Due to these problems, durability and reliability are significantly reduced. You should also remember about deformations that will lead to distortions:
Most often this happens when there is a violation of the technological process or poor study of geology. Shrinkage occurs in areas of weak soil or with poor compaction.
In these cases, it is necessary to strengthen the supports, to strengthen the ground.
Of course, you have to spend a good amount of money, so choose the right foundation option, as well as follow the technological process.
Brick is one of the problematic materials. Only the reinforced concrete structure is more massive. Given these features, we can say that many foundations simply will not cope with such a load.
If you want the foundation to stand for many years, you need to choose the most profitable option.
The type of foundation will directly depend on the weight of the future building. The most profitable are piled, slab and strip foundations.
Consider the options for laying foundations.
For any option, several requirements should be met:
IMPORTANT: In order for the preparation work to be performed efficiently, it is best to contact a specialist.
If it is not possible to contact specialists, observe several standards:
You also need to take into account the type of house that will be built:
ON A NOTE: there are several rules for the depth of laying the foundation of a brick house.
The depth depends on the heaving of the soil, the characteristics of freezing, as well as the presence of groundwater.
This is the most popular option. It can withstand massive structures and is also easy to manufacture. Such a base is located around the entire perimeter of the future house, as well as under the load-bearing walls. With this option, you can plan a basement or basement.
The foundation can be monolithic or prefabricated. The first option is a reinforced structure completely filled with concrete. A very solid foundation that you can do yourself. The biggest disadvantage is the long time required for complete hardening.
Prefabricated - it is made of blocks (stone or concrete).
It is being built quickly, but you will need special equipment and assistants. This option will not be as durable as compared to the monolithic one.
According to the load exerted on the ground, are distinguished: shallow and buried. The first ones are laid to a depth of 0.5-0.
7 m. Small simple structures can be placed on them. Houses made of bricks, as we already know, are very heavy and their weight is difficult to hold, because of this it is best to make a recessed version. It is made 0.3 m below the freezing of the soil, especially if there is a basement and a basement.
The price of the foundation of a brick house also depends on the distance from the site to the city, where you can purchase all the necessary materials. So:
5 - 2 m, this is necessary for formwork and concrete. Level the bottom, check all corners with the theodolite.
If you have a prefabricated foundation, then we do the same procedure for the places where the blocks will be laid.
Boards with a width of 0.4-0.5 cm will do. Fasten them well with spacers. Make sure the boards are vertical.
Place the foundation 0.4 m higher than the ground. If the groundwater is close, then make it even higher.
IMPORTANT: Put roofing material along the bottom to make high-quality insulation.
It is best to take 6-10 mm rods. Connect the rods to each other using a welding machine. The resulting frame is lowered into a trench, laid on brick or stone supports.
With a vibrating hammer, if not, shake each layer with a shovel. Thanks to this procedure, there will be no voids.
IMPORTANT: the concrete mortar must be medium fat. In this case, it does not flow by itself, you need to try to distribute it.
The average drying time is up to 30 days. Remember to saturate the frame with water to prevent drying out.
When the soil is not can withstand a large and heavy house, then it is worth considering the option of laying a foundation from piles. In this version, most of the load is transferred to the ground, which is much lower. The piles are interconnected with a solution of concrete or reinforced concrete, on top of which walls will already be erected.
The pile foundation can be made on any soil, this will reduce your materials and work.
The main disadvantage in the construction of such a foundation is the need for special equipment that can drill a well, or drive it in.
There are different options for foundations of this type. The bored version with reinforced concrete piles is best suited. You can make such a base both with your own hands and using a special technique. The cost will also depend on the remoteness of the construction site from the city.
If you have preferred this option, you will need:
IMPORTANT: when the piles come out above the ground, the formwork can be built from metal pipes.
We install the formwork.
IMPORTANT: the formwork for the grillage can be made prefabricated-panel. It is easy to install, and the grillage will be more durable.
Everything is ready and you can build the walls of the future home.
The simplest option. This is a monolithic slab, it is located throughout the entire area. This foundation perfectly distributes loads, well suited for heaving, subsiding soils.
Consider the installation of a shallow tiled base. You will need reinforced concrete beams, reinforcement, and slabs that will need to be connected. Let's get started:
Sometimes, when the foundation is ready, you have to change the material for the construction of walls. If the foundation is not strengthened, then cracks and distortions may occur. The easiest way is to increase the base, but there are other possibilities.
This can be done with a special cannon.
You have decided to build a brick house, think over what the foundation will be. From the article, you realized that the brick house is very massive, so in order to avoid problems, choose the right option.
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