The power supply system of a private house - the best options
One of the most important elements among all communications of residential engineering the building is the supply of electrical energy. In our time, it is impossible to imagine a country house without electricity, through it all the usual benefits of civilization, coziness and comfort for an urban person will become available.
The list of electrical equipment used in country houses has become more extensive. Further, in addition to the usual refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, heaters and lamps, pumps for wells, underfloor heating, air conditioning, saunas, pool heating, outdoor lamps and much more are often needed to provide electric energy.
The uninterruptible power supply system of a private house is very important for the constant and safe operation of house systems.
Drawing up technically correct and detailed project documentation makes it possible to correctly calculate the required number of materials, take into account all the nuances, avoid many mistakes, which can be corrected it will be extremely difficult without large financial investments or disruptions to construction terms.
This is not surprising, because the laying of electrical wiring begins at the stage of rough work, and ends after finishing with the installation of socket facades and lamps. In addition, when building new buildings in order to obtain a permit for the use of electrical energy, the homeowner must, in addition to submitting applications with the energy supplying organization, for the approval of the project, including with the State Energy Supervision and Energosbyt.
In any case, starting electrical work without planning will not work. It is imperative to calculate in advance the number of electrical equipment that will be used, its types, power and specification.
Based on such data, a certain load can be calculated. It is not difficult to calculate the total power consumption - you need to add up the rated power of all equipment and priorities that you have and plan to connect in the future, and then multiply everything by the simultaneity factor, that is, by 0. 7. Naturally, ideally, you should have power reserve.
In a large number of cases, the connection to the power transmission line is performed by air by using an insulated cable or wires in a non-combustible sheath, often laid on a steel cable.
Select the lead-in cables and wires in accordance with the PES, and to connect the house to the ground, an armored cable is used, which is coordinated with the parameters in Energonadzor. Introductory overhead lines by means of special hooks with insulators, pipe racks or brackets are attached to the capital house structures in the immediate vicinity of the electric meter. A through hole is made in the house wall in order to supply power.A plastic or metal tube-sleeve should be inserted into such a hole in advance.
Usually, the input for a garden or country house is made according to single-phase schemes, but if you need to power more by the number of powerful household appliances and electricity consumption is more than 4 kW / h, then it would be more expedient to use a three-phase power supply system in a private house , where 3 line and 1 neutral wire.
Sometimes people are faced with a restriction on the power allocated to certain houses (summer cottages no more than 3 kW, in a village up to 6 kW, and new cottage villages from 15 to 25 kW).
If the demand exceeds such a limit, the way out of the situation may be the use of special automation, which, according to the program, ensures the uninterrupted operation of the main consumers at the expense of the secondary ones. If the limits and restrictions are exceeded, this can lead to a voltage drop in the general network, and also causes an emergency shutdown of the electricity supply.
According to all safety standards, modern cottages must be equipped with an earthing loop. In the role of "natural" grounding conductors, it is best to use pipes and metal for water conduits that lie in the ground, well casing, metal and reinforced concrete structures of buildings and buildings that are in contact with the ground.
Another grounding is made of steel rods with a rectangular or circular cross-section, the thickness of which is from 0.6 cm, as well as corners with a shelf thickness of 0.4 cm. These rods should not be painted over, ideally they should be galvanized.
They need to be buried lower than the depth of freezing of the soil, and then they are scalded with strips of steel, on which a copper conductor with a cross section of 2.
5 mm is attached by means of a bolt connection 2 (minimum), which goes to the main ground bus in the electrical panel. Grounding resistance should not exceed 4 ohms. In the electrical panel, protective conductors from all consumers are fixed on the main bus. The grounding type conductor must have the same cross-section for the supply wire. For this reason, three-core wires are now used for wiring - line, earth and neutral.
The functioning and reliability of the network as a whole will depend on the competent choice of the cross-section of cables used for electrical wiring. The main criterion for calculating the cross-section of the wire will be the total power of consumers who are powered by such a conductor. It is also important at what temperature the network will be operated and the type of wiring (hidden / outdoor). The main expedient indicators of the cross-section of wires that are used in the supply of a residential country house have long been determined by practicing craftsmen.
Copper wires or cables with a cross section of at least 6 mm 2 are used to connect and organize the supply of the house, and also aluminum - at least 16 mm 2 .
In order to connect power sockets, three-core double-insulated copper wires are used, the cross section of which is from 2.5 mm 2 . For lighting, 1.5 mm 2 is enough. Very powerful heaters (hob, boiler, flow heater, oven) are powered from a wire whose cross-section is from 4 mm 2 and above - it is laid directly to the electrical panel, bypassing the junction boxes.
If there are difficulties with the exact determination of the current load, and there are enough funds, you need to take wires / cables with a cross-sectional margin. In houses made of wood, or built using frame technology, it is required to use special conductors that do not support combustion, for example, a self-extinguishing type VVGng or NYM wire. In a room with a high air temperature (bath / sauna), a thermally stable cable is used, the insulation of which can withstand up to +180 degrees.
The electrical board can be mounted or built-in. As a rule, it is placed on the main wall, as much as possible to the place with the power input at a height of no more than 1.
7 meters from the floor. In a switchboard of a distribution type, several groups of automatic machines, a residual current device, and commutation buses (ground and zero) are installed at once.
Also, the shield often has a counter. The size of the flap is usually chosen based on the type and number of elements that are located in it. It is more expedient to have a certain reserve of places for additional machines if new consumers need to be connected.
To simplify the wiring of the power of the main electrical cabinet, we recommend arranging simplified shields for individual floors of a multi-storey building, as well as for buildings that stand separately. Small distribution boards are powered from the main wire, the cross section of which is 4 mm 2 .
Wires are routed in accordance with the layout of sockets, stationary devices, switches and lighting elements. The power supply system of a private house must be thought out - divide the sockets in the house into several groups, and they will be connected with a cable with a cross section of 2.5 mm 2 from the junction box.
A certain machine (from 16 to 25 A) will be responsible for each group, their number depends only on the area and how many sockets are planned. Usually, sockets with a specific room fall into the same group, but not always. In three-phase networks, the groups and the load are distributed evenly on each line in order to maintain the symmetry of the phase voltage.
Lighting of all rooms is switched in separate branch boxes. For ideal protection of luminaires from overload, automatic machines from 3 to 10 A are used.
The cables that go from the switchboard to the distribution boxes and consumers are placed in a corrugated sleeve made of metal or plastic. Recently, only hidden wiring in the grooves is usually used. Most of the wires run along the ceilings, attaching them with special clips or plastic clamps.All highways are easily hidden under stretch or plasterboard ceilings. You can equip the wiring in a concrete screed in compliance with certain standards.
The location of the boxes for the branch is still recommended to be indicated on the plan, because they will be putty and pasted over with wallpaper. Boxes should be located lower than false ceilings and must not be obstructed by furniture or other large structures. Usually they are installed in the corridor above the interior doors. The wires, which come into the junction boxes, are stripped of insulation and switched by means of terminals, welding and PPE. Cables of low-current consumers (Internet cables, television, security, telephone and sound cables) are in particular need.
To avoid interference, they must not be laid near power lines, especially in a single corrugation with socket wires.
Posted By: Work Style |05, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |01, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |05, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |01, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |13, Nov 2020