DIY USB foundation: calculation, technology. USP is a foundation that is heat efficient and modern. By the way, this is not only a foundation, and not just a slab of concrete, it is the real foundation of your home. It includes a ready-made system of comfortable underfloor heating throughout the entire area of the house, piping for water supply, electrical cables and sewerage, high quality floor insulation, and the smooth surface of the USHP is suitable even for laying a clean floor covering.
Swedish slabs are suitable for frame houses, as well as houses made of timber, aerated concrete, logs, self-supporting insulated houses and others, that is, you can build on any type of soil.
Before pouring concrete, there is much more to follow, and we will start with preparing the pillow - this is the base on which the formwork will be exposed where the plate will be located. It is necessary to prepare a sandy flat area and thoroughly tamp it using special equipment, a vibrating plate. It is interesting that the "filling" of the pillow will depend on the type of soil, starting with the usual removal of the fertile layer, filling with sand and tamping, ending with the complete containment of the soil under the slab at a great depth and tamping with heavy vibratory rolling. The preparation of the pillow is quite an important milestone in construction, and then, at the very end, the quality of the seal should be checked with a penetrometer.
After that on the already prepared site, you can begin to set the level of the permanent formwork made of expanded polystyrene.
This is far from the fragile foam that you are used to seeing in boxes from household appliances, PPS 14/35 according to the new GOST, especially since the EPSs are much denser and are durable. From this it follows that between the concrete and the ground there will be a thick layer of excellent and dense insulation. This will give you the opportunity to heat the house, and not just heat the ground below it.
Interestingly, according to the construction of the USP foundation, foam plastic is required so that the ground under the house does not freeze, which means that there will be no frost heaving, dangerous foundation shifts, cracks in the wall and other troubles. At the same stage, you should start laying pipes for the sewage system, making the input of water and electrical cables, and grounding.
Most often, at the stage of laying the foundation, a septic tank or VOC is immediately installed, so that the issue of sewage will be resolved at the very beginning.
Let's add that the outer part of the formwork should be faced with flat slate. During construction, it will reliably protect the PSB layer from any type of damage, and it can also be used in the future - you can simply paint it in the required color or cover it with mosaic plaster and the base will be ready. It is also convenient to attach basement panels to the flat view of the slate.
By the way, at the expense of the height of the base of the USP (meaning the height from ground level to the edge of the slab).
It will be small - about 20 cm, but this is even a plus - you will not need to make a porch with steps at the entrance to the house. But at the request of the customer, you can easily increase the height. An extra 0.1 meter can be added thanks to the additional bedding of the pillow, and the same amount can be added using an additional layer of insulation material under the stove.
When it rains, a stream of water will flow from the roof down the drain pipe and will need to be drained somewhere.
For this, storm sewers are made, and sometimes storm water inlets are installed - these are devices like hatches for drainpipes, where rainwater will drain, and it will go into a well or ditch. Believe me, this option is much better than puddles near the house. In a large number of areas, due to dampness, drainage is also required, and it is described in more detail in another article, but in short, it is required to immediately drain water from the house so that it is dry around. This should also be done immediately, along with the rest of the work with the ground.
Along the perimeter around the foundation, sheets of expanded polystyrene should be buried, which will be covered with a thick film - this will be the insulated blind area.
It is required to protect against freezing and frost heaving of the soil around the foundation. You can cover it with sand, and then with a decorated stone, or you can immediately concrete everything beautifully. So, you will remove excess moisture from under and around the house, and you will also be able to insulate the foundation and perimeter. This will mean that there is no chance of the soil heaving from frost - dry sand, protected by foam from frost, will no longer move.
You can't just take, mix cement mortar and start pouring it into the finished formwork.
Reinforcement with metal gives strength to concrete structures. In the classic USHP foundation with your own hands, the area will be covered with a welded reinforcing mesh, and reinforcement rods should be used in the stiffeners. Under a house with a large weight, you can install additional stiffeners, a reinforcing cage, use the double reinforcement method, and so on. Everything will be designed based on what will be the load on the foundation, that is, everything will depend on the material of the house and its size.
Pipes for underfloor heating should be laid over the entire area of the house.
To do this, you will need to divide the house into several zones, for example, a kitchen, a bedroom, a living room, a bathroom. In each zone, a separate underfloor heating circuit will be laid, which can be adjusted on the collector. So, you will get a house that will be heated by means of a warm floor. And if your house is well insulated, then this one system will be enough for heating even in severe frosts (for a one-story house or a two-story first floor).It is quite comfortable and convenient, as the heat evenly rises from the floor in each room, which is much nicer than a standard radiator under the window.
Due to the fact that the warm floor is poured into concrete, a monolithic slab of concrete will serve as an excellent heat accumulator. It will not warm up immediately, gradually, but when it gains heat, it will give it off for a very long time. Even if an emergency occurs and your electricity or gas is cut off, it will not be felt right away, only after a day or more. Yes, the temperature in the house will drop slowly.
Now let's talk about how to carry out communications, namely sewerage, electricity and water.
In addition to the underfloor heating, communications are also laid inside the slabs, namely, cables (electrical, which can even be brought into the walls), pipes for hot and cold water, pipes for sewers, water drains for the future shower room, and also to dissolve the remaining cables and air ducts. This is a standard set.
The USHP foundation slab is not made for an abstract house only with estimated dimensions. At a minimum, you will need a draft design, and then you can immediately bring heating to the rooms, bring pipes to the kitchen and to future bathrooms, start installing underfloor heating collectors and water supply in the technical room.
And the final work on the USP is pouring concrete and grouting or grinding it.
When all the underfloor heating and communications are ready, the cables and leads have been checked, the integrity of the pipes has been tested thanks to the pressure, you can call the mixer and start pouring high quality concrete mixture. You cannot use homemade concrete, only a mixture from the best concrete plant, and the latter must have all the required documents, certificates and samples.
After a certain time after pouring, when the concrete gains strength a little, you can start grinding the surface using a special trowel, which in the common people is called "helicopter". As with pouring and grouting, the evenness of the slab should be constantly monitored, and a laser level will help you with this. The result is a smooth concrete base with minimal discontinuities.
After that, you can immediately start laying the laminate or tiles, and you do not need to fill in an additional screed - everything will be ready anyway.
So, when ordering a UWB foundation upon completion of work, you will receive:
When comparing the USP with screw piles or with a standard slab of concrete, we find that the comparison is not in favor of all other types. Naturally, piles will be cheaper, and on them you can also build a fairly good house, but imagine how much work will be left to do for later? And who will carry them out and how much will it cost?
When assessing and comparing the cost of different types of foundation, all of the above factors should be taken into account. UWB is a ready-made zero cycle, a kind of "turnkey" foundation. You can also install a box at home on the USHP, and the rest will already be carried out inside - communications, heating and insulation.
When comparing, in a house on the same screw piles, you will need to make a lower floor, do its insulation, carry out communications, make wiring around the house, fill a screed, install a heating system, and come up with something with finishing a high base. As you can see, the first option has much more advantages, but which type of foundation to choose is up to you!
Posted By: Work Style |04, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |04, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |04, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |01, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |03, Nov 2020