Among all types of decorative plaster, Venetian is rightfully considered the most spectacular and sophisticated, and therefore costs more. Despite the fact that the technology for applying Venetian plasters is well known, it is not so easy to cope with it. This material requires a certain skill and a firm hand, otherwise all efforts will be in vain.
The plaster itself is thick a translucent mixture that is sold ready-to-use. It is tinted in different colors, and when applied with compositions of two or three shades, it forms a coating with a marble effect.
The more layers, the deeper the color, and the more luxurious the finish looks. A special expressiveness to the plaster is given by gloss, which refracts light rays and makes the coating play in different shades. To enhance the gloss, the surface is coated with a special wax and polished.
Decorative facade plaster
Decorative Venetian plasters
The plaster mixture consists of a finely dispersed filler, a binder, organic and inorganic additives, and stone chips. As a filler, gypsum, lime, marble, quartz and granite flour are most often used, and as a binder - latex and acrylic emulsion, slaked lime.
The final finishing result depends not only on the composition, but also on the particle size: the finer the grind, the softer the pattern is.
There are two main types of Venetian plaster - embossed and smooth. The first type contains small granules up to 2 mm in size, due to which the coating acquires a certain texture. The second type forms a perfectly smooth transparent surface that allows you to achieve an indescribable play of light. In turn, smooth plaster is divided into glossy, semi-matte and matte, and each variety is attractive in its own way.
Smooth Venetian plaster with gloss
Venetian plaster has the following characteristics:
Despite its strength and moisture resistance, "Venetian" is not intended for external surfaces. Prolonged freezing, exposure to precipitation and wind will lead to cracks and rapid destruction of the finishing layer.And the price of such finishing is very high considering how much material is required for the facade. True, some manufacturers have already begun producing special formulations that are suitable for both indoor and outdoor use.
To achieve a marble effect, the mixture must be applied in layers - from 3 to 10 layers. There are strict requirements for the substrate: it must be perfectly smooth, even, dry and clean. Despite the multilayer structure, the coating is very thin, so the smallest irregularities will be clearly visible. And the transparency and gloss will emphasize these defects even more. As for the base material, it can be brick, wood or concrete.
Features of the selection and application of decorative plaster
High demand for Venetian plaster contributes to the constant expansion of the range. Each manufacturer is trying to lure customers with something new and unusual. This is how formulations with gold pigments appeared, coatings with a metallic sheen and bronze veins, shining from the inside and a velvety-looking surface. Products of such brands as "San Marco", "Clavel", "Candis", "Croston", "Alpina", "Optimist Elite" are distinguished by a special variety and quality.
Classical plaster is divided into types depending on the composition, since it is this criterion that determines the external characteristics of the finishing layer.
Let's consider the most popular varieties.
| Water-soluble composition with polished marble effect. Odorless, ready to use, filler - marble flour. The operating temperature range of the coating is from +5 to +35 ° С. It takes 24 hours to dry, consumption is 0. |
350-0.5 kg / m2 with three layers of application
| Depending on the method of application, it allows you to create the effect of cork and polished marble with terracotta splashes. Contains limestone filler and aged hydrated lime. Drying time - 24 hours, consumption 0.7-0. |
8 ml / m2 for two-layer application
| Composition with a natural stone effect with colored splashes. Contains stone flour, lime dough, terracotta granules, inorganic dyes. Does not require dilution with water, has antiseptic properties. Complete drying time - a day, before operational loads - 20 days. Consumption 0. |
6-0.8 / m2
|A water-resistant, shiny-veined compound for a velvety finish with chopped edges. Complete drying time - 24 hours, consumption per layer - 0.350 g / m2|
| Synthetic compound with a mirror effect.Forms a very decorative, non-cracking coating. |
No dilution required, drying time is 24-36 hours. Material consumption - from 170 to 200 g / m2 per layer
|Lime formulation containing gold pigment. Forms a coating with a metallic sheen and fine gold veins. Cannot be diluted. Drying time - 24 hours, mixture consumption - 200 g / m2 per layer|
| Acrylic composition imitating rough-cut marble with gilding and mother-of-pearl sheen. |
The coating has an incredibly luxurious look. Complete drying time - from 12 to 24 hours, material consumption 0.6 kg / m2 for the base layer and 0.2 kg / m2 for the finishing
Prepare the tools
Wall decoration is preceded by a thorough preparation, and first you need to stock up on the necessary tools:
Depending on the condition of the walls, you may need a plaster mixture, putty, cement mortar, primer.
One primer can be taken for all stages of work, and a deep penetration acrylic primer is best suited. Professional craftsmen recommend using a special primer, for example, SuPrim100, as a base for the finishing layer. This composition overlaps the color of the base, due to which the walls do not show through the layers of plaster, and the coating acquires a deeper color.
Universal primer Suprim 100
It is very important to correctly calculate the volume of the mixture for Venetian plaster. Since a mixture of different shades is usually used, the amount of each of them is calculated separately.
That is, first find the total surface area and multiply the plaster consumption per square meter by it. Now you need to determine how many layers of the same color are needed and multiply the resulting volume by this amount. In the same way, the volume is considered for the remaining compositions of a different color.
For example, it is planned to take white and black plaster for finishing. We will apply black in 2 layers, white in one, intermediate.
The total wall area is 10 m2, and the average plaster consumption is 0.350 g / m2. We multiply the area by the consumption:
10 x 0.350 = 3.5 kg will be needed to apply one layer.
That is, you need to buy 3.5 kg of white plaster, and 2 times more black plaster - 7 kg. Additionally, you need to add 5-10% in reserve.
As for tinting: as a rule, plaster mixes are supplied in three versions - colored, base for light tones and base for dark tones.Basic mixtures are much preferable, since they can be given absolutely any color and shade, while the color palette of ready-made compositions is very limited.
Choosing a base, you can order tinting from specialists or do it yourself at home. This is not difficult at all, the main thing is to follow three rules:
Deep penetration primer
The configuration of the base does not really matter for a Venetian; such plaster is successfully used for finishing arches, columns, semicircular niches and arched walls. But the quality of the surface means a lot, because the appearance of the finished coating largely depends on it. The base must be strong, without defects, voids, as smooth and even as possible.
So, first they remove everything unnecessary from the walls, carefully examine the surface. Especially carefully you need to check the plaster, which may visually seem strong, but in fact has already begun to flake off. Lightly tap the walls with a hammer - if the sound is dull, you need to clean off the old coating and re-plaster.
A ringing sound indicates the reliability and strength of the plaster
Be sure to seal through holes and cracks, cover deep recesses with mortar. For better leveling, use dry construction mixtures, which, unlike cement-sand mortar, lay down more evenly and do not crack.
Seal cracks and irregularities
After the base layer has dried, the surface is rubbed with sandpaper, dust is removed and a finishing layer is applied - a cover that allows eliminate the smallest irregularities. The mortar is smoothed with a polyurethane or metal float to perfect condition and left to dry.
Plasterboard walls also require preliminary preparation.
Facade gypsum board
The seams between the sheets are filled with putty, a reinforcing tape is applied on top and gently rubbed into the solution using a spatula. The surface must be primed in order to increase the adhesion of the mortar to the drywall, and then a rough layer of starting putty is applied.
The layer should be uniform, thin, if possible without sagging and scratches. After drying, sanding, dusting and priming are performed. If the irregularities on the walls are no longer visible, you can apply a finishing putty, otherwise you will need another intermediate layer.
You can start decorative finishing only after the leveling mortars are completely dry.Then the walls are once again wiped from dust and treated with any waterproof deep penetration primer.
If you have never dealt with decorative plaster before, practice first on a piece of plywood or drywall about 70x70 cm in size. fasten on a flat surface so that it does not move during operation. Or you can try your hand at the section of the wall that is planned to be sheathed with wood or plastic: this way you will quickly decide on the application technique, and the plating will hide the trial results.
Step 1 . To create a background, a pigmented primer is applied to the walls with a roller in 2 layers.
The composition must be well rolled over the surface in one direction. The second layer is applied 8-12 hours after the first. Complete drying of the soil takes 24 hours.
Pouring soil into the tray
Roll the roller
Apply primer with roller
Apply primer evenly
Step 2. Sand the dry walls with fine-grained sandpaper, then carefully wipe off the dust.
The base should be of a uniform white color, smooth, silky to the touch.
Prepare the walls
Step 3. Add color to the plaster mixture and stir well with a mixer until smooth ...
The color can be added gradually to find the optimal shade of the plaster. Just keep in mind that after drying, the color will become slightly lighter.
Add color to the plaster composition
Mix the color and base
The plaster mortar is prepared by mixing the plaster itself and the color
Step 4. Gain a little mass on the trowel (about a tablespoon) and apply it on the base with strokes.
Trowel plaster set
Start at the top corner and hold the tool at an angle of about 30 degrees to the surface.
The strokes are made with slight pressure, in a chaotic manner, rubbing the layer as thin as possible. Do not try to cover the base, it should show through the solution.
Apply the first layer
Smooth the first layer with a spatula
Drain the solution in small portions all the time, working section by section. You cannot return to the places you have already passed - this will break the structure of the coverage. Use a narrow trowel instead of a trowel at the joints and grooves, being careful not to snag the layer with sharp edges.
Apply the mixture to the corners
Tip. To avoid leaving streaks from the tool, the trowel should be moved from a dry surface to a wet one. So the composition is leveled faster and more evenly. If you do the opposite, the solution will begin to reach behind the trowel, and noticeable traces will form.In the process, often wipe the tool with a damp, clean cloth, since dried mortar crumbs and accidentally trapped grains of sand also leave ugly marks that shine through the coating.
Step 5. After finishing the first coat, wash the instrument thoroughly and pause for 6-12 hours. After that, you need to treat the walls with "zero" sandpaper in order to eliminate possible protrusions and sagging, and to remove dust.
Step 6. For the second layer you will need a different shade of plaster.
They apply it in the same way, but it is desirable that new strokes do not coincide with the previous ones where it is visible. Try to maintain the same pressure when rubbing, as if compacting the layers with even movements. After completing the process, the walls are again left to dry for 8 hours.
Apply the second layer
Step 7. The third layer should be the same color as the first, or have a different shade, as long as it is different in color from the second layer.
The plaster is applied as described above and carefully leveled. Since this layer is our last, there is no need to wait until it is completely dry. Manufacturers recommend starting polishing about 2-3 hours after application, since wet plaster can come off the base, and completely dry plaster can no longer be polished.
Working out the texture
Venetian plaster application
Plastering with a trowel
Don't forget about the corners
Step 8. So, we begin to polish the coating.
By this time, the surface should be slightly porous and dull, like an untreated stone. Take a clean and dry trowel, apply it flat to the base and, with pressure on the front of the tool, rub the plaster layer in a circular motion. Here it is very important to correctly maintain the given rhythm and pressure, then the coating quickly acquires a glossy shine, becomes smooth, and the pattern appears. Make sure that the edges of the trowel do not damage the coating. After polishing, let the plaster dry completely and gain maximum strength.
This usually takes about 7 days.
Walk over the last coat with a clean trowel, holding it at a 30 degree angle and making circular motions to give it a shine
Step 9. The final step is waxing.
Stir the wax before applying
The walls must first be wiped with a dry cloth from dust. The wax has a thick consistency, it is most convenient to apply it with a flexible spatula or sponge.
The composition is taken in small portions and spread over the surface with smears. Try to rub it as evenly as possible, as the thick wax layer stays darker than the thin one after drying, and the finish appears spotty.
To preserve the gloss of the plastered surface and make it more durable, complete the work with a suitable coating
Step 10. After 2 hours, when the wax is dry enough, it should be polished with a suede cloth, with intensive circular movements.
Depending on the brand of plaster, the finishing process may have some differences.
First of all, this concerns the drying time and the number of layers. Before starting work, carefully read the manufacturer's instructions on the packaging of the composition - this will help you avoid application errors and ensure a high-quality result, subject to all conditions.
The described technology allows to obtain the simplest classic drawing. If you use three colors of plaster, the shades of the coating will be richer and more expressive. To create a more sophisticated drawing, increase the number of layers and apply strokes in a specific order.
A lot depends on the artistic flair, experience and skill of the one who is engaged in finishing.
This is how the composition for a multi-color coating is recruited
Application of one color
Collect the second color
Apply the second color
Applies third color
Application of plaster in the second continuous layer
This method creates a very expressive structure with a high decorative effect. For work you need Venetian plaster of three different wood colors and pearlescent enamel "gold". All three plaster compositions are applied to the trowel with a spatula at once and slightly mixed with each other. Apply with broad strokes to the surface, forming a layer 5-7 mm thick.
For convenience, the walls are processed in squares so that the material does not have time to dry out.
After distributing the mixture over the base, take a building hair dryer and dry the layer, then removing, then bringing the nozzle closer to the surface. Such uneven heating contributes to the formation of cracks of various depths and sizes, that is, it forms a unique texture. Then the plaster is left to dry completely for about 2 days. The next step is to apply the enamel.
You can also use acrylic paint or Venetian plaster with the effect of gold, silver, mother of pearl. The composition is applied with a brush, rubbing well over the surface so that the paint penetrates into the cracks and makes the texture more expressive.
When the top layer is completely dry, the walls are sanded, and then ironed with a metal trowel.
To form the embossed texture, you need a short-haired roller and an appropriate plaster, such as Tierrafino. The roller is dipped into the composition, rolled out on a pallet so that the mixture is evenly saturated, and applied in a continuous layer to the walls.
Movements should be directed in one direction, layer thickness - 0.3-0.5 mm. After application, you need to wait about 30-40 minutes, while the roller should be covered with a wet rag to avoid drying the pile.
After the specified period has elapsed, the roller is applied to the surface and, with slow, very accurate movements, is rolled over the plaster.
The movements must be parallel, it is impossible to roll twice on the same strip, otherwise the structure will be disturbed. After completing the process, pause for 1-1.5 hours. Next, take a clean, dry trowel and, with a little effort, smooth the protrusions in a circular motion. After a day, it is necessary to iron the coating with a metal trowel or trowel.
Double paint roller
Handy tools for creating texture
Rags can also be used to create a unique texture
To create circular texture it is recommended to use a coarse paint brush
Structural paint rollers
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