How ventilation is arranged in a panel house + scheme. In order for it to be comfortable inside the room, the air exchange was such that it meets all the standards, a ventilation system must be equipped in every residential building. This also applies to multi-storey buildings, which represent the bulk of urban housing. During construction, standard schemes are used for equipping the ventilation system, and due to this, it is possible to implement various modes of air circulation.
This article will consider traditional schemes, the subtleties of creating forced ventilation in a panel house and the nuances of arranging ventilation for sewage systems.
The first among ventilation schemes in a multi-storey building can be called the one that means the presence of separate channels for all apartments, and there is an exit on the roof. This approach to the ventilation system makes it possible to ensure air exchange at the best level in buildings that are no more than 5 floors high. In this case, the inflow is additionally ensured by leaks in the window and door openings. It is due to this that the desired pressure difference for the ventilation duct is obtained. But most of the people rejected this approach for use in panel houses.
This is due to the following reasons:
Brick houses can be enlarged to the required size so that all the nodes that will help to ensure normal vital activity. But with buildings that were built using panel technology, this approach will not work.
This is due to the fact that initially one size of the blocks was set, and now it is unrealistic to vary it.
At the same time, several channels for the ventilation system take up a lot of usable space, and for such a height, a multichannel system is not able to provide a sufficient air flow. As a result, moisture builds up in the bathroom and an unpleasant odor in the bathroom. The other side of the coin of such ventilation is that air leaves living rooms quickly. This can lead to a decrease in the pressure level and the return of dirty air from the ventilation ducts.
They would help to equalize the pressure level. This can lead to uneven ventilation depending on the number of storeys, and the lower the floor, the better the ventilation on it. The result of this was the increased costs for the heating medium in the winter period for residents on the first floors, since all the heat is quickly blown out into the ventilation system. On the upper floor, however, is the other extreme, which can lead to poisoning from carbon monoxide with poor ventilation.
Practice, which is based on many years of experience in the construction of multi-apartment high-rises, has led to in order to be able to select several of the most effective schemes for creating a ventilation system. The choice of one of the schemes will depend on what shape the building has, how many floors, how polluted the outdoor air in your area is, and what the noise level is.
Scheme of a standard exhaust system
A scheme that is recognized as a standard one is one that has a natural impulse, i.e. air exchange into the room is carried out due to the difference in temperature and pressure.
In this case, it is meant that the sampled air exits through the ventilation shafts and channels to the roof, and fresh air enters through the doors / windows / special supply valves. The option of laying a separate mine for each apartment will simply not be considered, since it was advisable when low-rise buildings were being built.
Naturally, it is physically impossible for high-rise buildings of 9 floors and more to create a huge number of canals that are located in parallel. For this reason, two schemes are used in construction, which were recognized by critics as rational :
The fundamental difference can be seen in two points - the presence / absence of a horizontal type collector in the attic and the presence / absence of a common shaft on the riser.
Important! A different layout has been created for the upper floors, where there is a separate direct outlet for used air.
Local-type withdrawal from the upper floors is due to the fact that in order to create traction above the apartment, be a horizontal channel that is at least 2 meters high. Separately conducted canals, as well as a common shaft, must be well insulated, otherwise condensation may appear in the attic, which will lead to premature destruction of the material and mold.
Installation of a horizontal attic box is carried out taking into account all requirements. For example, its diameter must be large enough so that back draft does not occur, and exhaust air does not get back into the channels.
Calculation of the duct diameter for the ventilation system in a panel house must be carried out by an experienced engineer. To ensure that air moves in the required direction and does not flow back, there are incisions inside the channel.In certain cases, it is not possible to install a cumbersome horizontally located channel, and then you need to manage with a narrow section of pipes, but on the upper floors the same local system must be used - separate sleeves brought out to the attic.
Natural ventilation, which almost all old buildings are equipped with, has one big plus - it does not require electricity. But this is followed by a minus, since its effectiveness will depend only on the temperature difference in the room and the building, and channels and shafts require constant cleaning, and in practice such actions are performed very rarely.
Features of the location of channels in a house of 9 floors
In typical houses, the process of changing air masses is carried out in a natural mode, when the influx of fresh air takes place in apartments, and the exhaust air is removed using special ventilation shafts, which are equipped with special satellite channels. As a rule, such channels are laid from the exhaust outlet in the apartment according to the scheme "every two floors", but sometimes they are also built on floors. The ventilation scheme, which is typical for an ordinary multi-storey building, has a common exhaust shaft, which directly goes to the roof, and satellite channels are laid in parallel and alternately connected.
But normally, the withdrawal from the 8th and 9th floors is carried out not through a common shaft, but separately. When drawing up such a scheme, the average atmospheric conditions should be taken into account, that is, the air temperature outside should be +5 degrees and no wind. Such a scheme was considered not very effective, since the functionality of natural ventilation decreases during changes in natural conditions. For example, in extreme heat, it will simply be a useless attribute at home. There is also a high probability of clogging of the channels, and this can completely block the movement of air.
If there is no normal traction, emergency cleaning may be required, although it should be done every 5 years according to the rules.
Residents of prefabricated high-rise buildings could perfectly feel and feel the consequences of improper operation of the installed ventilation systems.
Among them, we highlight the following:
Please note that the greater the pressure difference, the better the ventilation system works in multi-storey panel-type buildings. This difference will decrease as the outside temperature rises, which means that problems can arise during the warm season. Sometimes problems may even appear at night or in windy weather, when the ventilation starts to work in the opposite direction. The second factor that makes itself felt throughout the entire time is the overflow of a bad smell.If one of the tenants smokes, then most tenants know about it if they are higher or at the same level.
You can also easily find out what your neighbors are cooking at the moment. The situation becomes worse if appliances are installed in one apartment that can provide forced ventilation in the kitchen or bathroom and toilet.
Good advice! The issue of foreign odors can be solved by installing check valves that will not let the air in the ventilation get back into the apartment. It may also be necessary to install fans.
Maintenance of ventilation shafts means that everything leaves a lot to be desired, and debris and dust accumulate very quickly.
Because of this, the channel space is greatly narrowed and the thrust becomes worse. The reason for contamination is the absence of a filtration system that should retain steam, dust, air saturated with fats. It is safe to say that in the presence of a plaque with a layer of 0.5 cm, about 20% of the polluted air gets into the system.
In modern house construction, in order to seal balcony and window openings, metal-plastic and plastic structures are used.
Double-glazed windows made of aluminum and polymers are much stronger than wood, but most often they completely block the natural channels of fresh air intake. The doors also fit tightly to the floor and make the room completely airtight. There is no air intake, and in the absence of an effective supply system, the hood becomes a useless lotion. To solve such problems of access to clean air in apartments, they began to install special equipment for residential elite houses, namely, air handling units.
An example of installing a supply and exhaust system in an apartment building shows that below, in the basement or basement, supply equipment with a special filter and air heating is installed, and a fan and a chiller are installed on the roof.
The exhaust and supply ventilation system is quite complicated, and for its installation and individual elements, you will need to find a place in the basement (for heating the supply air) and on the roof (chiller and fan).
Unlike natural ventilation, such a system is also referred to as volatile, since it consists of a whole set of complex devices that are controlled from one remote control. ShUV is installed next to the supply equipment, usually in the basement, and only qualified service personnel have access to it. It can be noted that in residential multi-storey buildings there are all three types of ventilation in a panel house, while natural ventilation is considered the most common, and the installation of a combined or forced system still has some limitations.
Now it is worth considering how the air circulates in a separate apartment without installing additional types of devices for air exchange.
As mentioned above, fresh and clean air will flow through various gaps and crevices in the window, as well as through the door openings - cracks and when the door is slightly open. The diagram shows the direction and movement of the air perfectly. It will flow through the doors or windows of the dwelling, and move towards the ventilation openings. Comfortable living in an apartment is characterized by a huge number of factors, including the frequency of air exchange and the volume of regularly changing air. There are certain standards that govern the flow of air flows.
The air exchange rate table, which is suitable for apartment buildings, is shown in the diagram. The change in air volume should take place most actively where there is a high level of humidity, that is, in sanitary facilities and in the kitchen. In old houses, ventilation shafts are not all working 100%, and all this can be checked in the most common technical way. You should take a sheet of paper and then attach it to the ventilation technical hole. If the paper is not held by the traction force and begins to fall off, then the natural type of ventilation is impaired.
Also, instead of a sheet, you can use a burning light or a match. By the way the tongue of flame moves, it can become clear whether there is a draft from the room to the outside. Problems with ventilation will negatively affect health, and in particular the well-being of those living in the apartment. Lack of fresh air will cause unhealthy sleepiness as well as fatigue and headaches. People who have heart and respiratory system diseases are especially sensitive to such changes.
They constantly keep windows and vents open, and this can lead to a sharp cooling of the room, and because of this, they often get sick with colds.
It is possible to improve the efficiency of the natural traction system using the simplest device - a fan, which will be installed in the ventilation outlet in the sanitary unit. If a hood is installed above the stove in the kitchen, which is used regularly and removes air into the ventilation shaft, this will contribute to a rapid change in the mass of air in the kitchen and adjacent rooms. If desired, the owners can independently organize the air flow. For this, it is fashionable to use standard methods (ventilation), and special technical / mechanical devices, for example, an inflow valve on a window.
Most often, valves are installed not only on a glass unit, but also in walls, and usually under windows, near heating appliances. Air from the street will enter the room through a small hole with a diameter of 50 to 100 mm and will be heated by heat from a radiator or convector, it all depends on the type of heating used.There are even automatic models that respond with particular sensitivity to changes in temperatures and humidity - as soon as the parameters begin to exceed the norm, ventilation is turned on.
Still, a centralized supply duct-type system is considered a more advanced ventilation system in a panel house. It can be installed independently, but only in private houses, since in multi-storey buildings only specialized services are involved in systems of this size.
Air supply and heating devices, as well as air ducts, are located above the premises in the ceilings, and can also resemble the walls, and for this reason they are installed during construction.
Duct supply ventilation is usually equipped in new buildings of an elite type (class). One of the installation conditions is high ceilings, which make it possible to carry out installation work without causing damage to the interior. As you can see, the absence of a well-oiled system of natural type of ventilation can be partially, but partially compensated by the installation of additional equipment. There is only one drawback - you will need additional spending on the purchase of devices and regular spending to pay your electricity bills.
The removal of unpleasant smells from the sewage system is also required in order to comfortably live in an apartment building. The "ventilation" system for the sewerage system is extremely simple - gases are removed through the same riser as the drain. To prevent unpleasant odors from causing discomfort to residents, the riser has a continuation and even goes out to the roof in the form of a ventilation fan pipe. The diagram clearly shows how the ventilation system of the sewage system is arranged. All plumbing multi-apartment appliances will be "tied" to a common riser, which ends with a fan pipe on one side, and with an outlet on the other, which leads to the centralized city network.
With knowledge of the scheme, you can immediately figure out why the work on the redevelopment of the sanitary unit requires special permission. If you change the location of the riser or connect more plumbing devices, then the operation of the ventilation system may be damaged. When creating a sewerage network, when accounting for the ventilation of the system, one should rely on the norms described in SNiP 2. 04. 01-85.
In order to improve ventilation on your own, you should consult with professionals in your field and choose the most effective and economical way in your case ... We offer you to watch video tutorials, and find out the expert opinion of the best specialist on how to create uniform operation of two or more ventilation ducts, which requires turbo deflectors and how to install a supply valve.
Yes, natural ventilation, which is typical for most houses in an apartment building, will not always fully justify itself.
If a forced ventilation system was not provided in the building, then you can create an outflow and inflow of air with your own hands, using household appliances.
If you live in an apartment building, we suggest using your experience and share how you set up the ventilation system, as well as tell you which of the devices you use in order to ensure a full and regular exchange of air in each room of the apartment. Comments should be left under the article, as your advice may be useful to other people who read this article.
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