Cladding brick laying technology + video
When decorating walls with bricks, a certain skill is important, since the masonry should turn out to be perfectly flat and also neat.
To do this on your own, you need to study in detail the technology of laying facing bricks, what are the methods of laying, as well as how to correctly make the jointing.
Decorating with this brick is highly valued for its external beauty and durability.
For a high-quality result, the following tools are required:
- Building level - without it you will not be able to lay bricks in even rows.
- Round twig with a diameter of 1 cm - for jointing.
- A square rod of metal with a cross section of 1 * 1 cm - in order to form the same seams between the rows.
- Angle grinder with diamond discs - used for cutting bricks
- Hammer pick - used to split the facing material.
- Trowel - it can be used to apply mortar, remove excess, trim the brick when laying.
You will also need a thin construction cord or strong thread, anchor and knitting wire to tie the masonry to the bearing walls.
By the arrangement of bricks in rows, several types of masonry can be distinguished:
Moreover, the masonry can be divided into varieties according to decorativeness:
If you have no experience, it is best to start with a standard half brick masonry, and as you get more experience, you can try other methods. It should be borne in mind that stack-type masonry is the most unstable, and therefore it is used only for decorative purposes.
So, let's consider the technology step by step.
Bricks for facing must be laid on the base, and therefore, when pouring and insulating the base, they provide for the protrusion of the base along the general perimeter of the house at a thickness facing masonry + 2-3 cm for air type gap.
Before starting work, it is important to check the base with a building level in order to exclude any possibility of distortions. If certain irregularities are found, then they can be eliminated with cement mortar.after that, the surface must be thoroughly swept.
Mixing the mortar
For facing brickwork, the mortar is prepared from cement marked M500 and fine clean sand. The components are required to be mixed in a ratio of 1 to 4, water is poured in small portions.
The finished mixture should be homogeneous, very thick, and if the ball rolled from the solution does not begin to disintegrate and keeps its shape perfectly, then the consistency can be considered correct. It is imperative to take clean water for mixing, with a low salt content, since otherwise unaesthetic whitish spots will appear on the lining - efflorescence that is not so easy to remove. An important point is that it is required to make a solution in a small volume, since the laying process takes time, and the solution will dry out quickly.
Laying the first row
When the facing brick mortar is ready, the first row can be laid. Near the workplace, you need to put a container with water and soak the bricks in it.
Experienced craftsmen advise to lay the bottom row without using a solution. Since the length of the perimeter of the house cannot always be a multiple of the length of the brick, in some places it will be necessary to trim the brick and choose the optimal location of the joints. If you lay the first row on a ready-made mortar, then trimming will be much more difficult. They start to work from the corner - by means of the building level, each brick is laid on the basement and the seams are aligned. Between the cladding and the bearing wall, it is imperative to leave 2-3 cm of free space for ventilation.
Next, you need to lay out corners at a height of 4 to 6 rows, and on the bottom row along the edge of the outer type, they put a square-type rod, collect a little solution with a trowel and apply it with care. Having slightly leveled the mortar, it is important to lay a brick on top, knock it out with the handle of a trowel so that it comes into contact with the twig. It is required to check the location with a level, and if necessary, then knock everything out again. Gently take out the twig, wipe off the crumbs of mortar, and then repeat all the same from the other side of the corner. When laying new bricks, pay attention to the correct corner dressing - the ends should alternate with long edges on both sides.
When all the corners are laid out, you can start cladding the wall surface. It is important to pull a strong thread between the corner-type bricks of the second row, laying it on top and fixing it with something heavy. Next, put a rod on the edge of the first row, cover the masonry surface with mortar. Bricks, which are intended for such a row, are installed vertically on the ground, applied with a trowel with a little mortar on the end parts, and then laid on the mortar with neat movements. It is required to select each of them, focusing on the thread, take out a twig and check the row with a level.
Binding the cladding to the wall
If the brick cladding was not planned at the very beginning, it is required to tie the facade masonry to the load-bearing wall. this can be done in two ways - by means of anchors and dowels with a knitting type wire. In the first case, the anchor must be driven into the wall of the building halfway, leaving the second part between the facing rows. It is better to take anchors in galvanized form, with a diameter of 0.6 cm.
Another option is to drill holes in the wall, insert dowels, attach a knitting wire to them. It should lie on the brick, but at the same time not go beyond its edge. As a standard, the mounts are installed through 4 rows of vertical type and at a distance of 0.7 meters horizontally. For each square meter of surface, approximately 5 fasteners are needed.
Around the openings, the distance between the dowels is reduced by approximately 1/3. The photo shows how you can attach the cladding by means of masonry mesh and plastic umbrellas when insulating walls with EPSP or even with foam.
Other rows are carried out according to the same scheme - they pull the thread between the corner parts at the height of the row, and also lay a twig, and then mortar and bricks. It is important to take into account that the width of the horizontal type seams should be from 1 to 1.5 cm, and the vertical ones are slightly less - from 0.
8 to 1 cm. Such laying will look very attractive. Near window and doorways, the brick is cut off and fixed in such a way that the row is not interrupted on the second side, and then the masonry pattern above the opening will remain correct.
For decorativeness of facing brick laying, slopes are laid out of a material of a different color. Along the entire perimeter of the slopes, the cladding will be carried out using the bonding method - the resulting columns, one brick wide, may slightly protrude beyond the edge of the wall cladding.
The slopes themselves must be exactly vertical, and therefore, during the laying process, control is carried out through the building level.
As soon as the mortar sets, you can start joining the masonry. It is important to sweep the surface, remove mortar crumbs, and moisten the masonry with water. prepare a working solution - mix lime and cement in equal amounts, and then add sand. The ratio of sand to cement is 10 to 1, water needs to be added so that the mixture becomes pasty.
After that, the solution can be filled in the seams and begin to form them by means of jointing. The first to form vertical types of seams, and then embroider horizontal.
Spreading more than 6-7 rows at a time is by no means possible, because the masonry can begin to deform from a huge load. It is important to check every 3-4 rows with a level so that maximum verticality is obtained.Also, it is impossible to fill the gaps between the wall of buildings and the cladding with anything, an air layer is required for ventilation of surfaces, in addition, it will also perform the functions of thermal insulation.
Slope joining can be done immediately after laying so that the scaffolding does not have to be rearranged twice.
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