Laying cable underfloor heating
Most owners of houses and apartments arrange underfloor heating in certain rooms ... Usually they are installed under a tile floor or tile. This decision is correct, because electric type warm floors are perfectly combined with a large number of floor coverings.
The use of tiles as a finish is a fairly popular option.
There are many types of topcoats, namely, porcelain stoneware, ceramic tiles and other materials similar in parameters. When laying cable underfloor heating under the tiles, you must follow the recommendations.
Before laying the electric cable for underfloor heating under the tile , you need to understand the merits of this solution. This helps to carry out the work efficiently, and the advantages of the warm floor on which the tiles are laid:
- The ability to warm up rooms at any time, and even when the heating season has not begun, you can conveniently use the warm floor.
- There is no risk of leakage during installation.
- This floor does not freeze in severe frosts.
- Surface temperatures can be conveniently adjusted.
- The height of the room is reduced to a minimum, because the heating cable has a small diameter, and the screed has a minimum thickness.
- Heating power does not change over the total area of the room.
- This floor is much easier to maintain than a water system.
But before buying a warm floor, you need to decide which specific system is best suited for this task.
Modern models are presented by means of a cable system or mats. Infrared floors will be included in a separate category. They have several varieties - these systems can be rod or film.
Each of these floor types has the following characteristics:
The differences include the installation features, the quality of the heat received, and also the requirements for the final coating.
Due to the reliability and safety of the cable systems, they have become very popular. They have a simple device:
This system is activated only if necessary - when the temperature decreases to a predetermined minimum.
Cable-type floors are represented by the following types:
For each room separately, cable systems are installed separately.
Warm cable electric floors for tiles in the form of mats are made of a thin heating cable, which is fixed to fiberglass.
The heating-type core is surrounded by a screen, and another layer of insulation. mats are made with a single-core and two-core cable. For a children's room and bedroom, the latter option is more suitable. This can be explained by the fact that the two-wire type mats have a low level of radiation (electromagnetic). Thin cables are mounted on top of a dry screed, and thermal mats are often laid under the tile.
Through the mesh, the adhesive adheres securely to the final coating. Thermal mats do not affect the floor level, as they seem to "sink" in the layer of tile adhesive. The mesh becomes like a reinforcing frame, and another advantage of thermal mats is ease of installation. They are required to be laid if you do not want to lift the floors. Mats differ from cable floors in that they are usually not used for main heating.
moreover, if, when creating a cement screed, there is a rather large load on the floor, it is better not to use cable systems. In this case, thermal mats are used.
Film and rod products are subtypes of infrared heaters. When current flows through the element, electromagnetic waves begin to appear. Their range is from 5 to 25 microns.
They heat all objects that are located in the zone of wave propagation. Conductive elements give off heat to the flooring, walls and furniture, which will heat the air. Infrared floors are energy efficient as they can convert approximately 95% of their energy into heat. All surfaces are heated in a couple of minutes. And if the mechanical type of a single segment is damaged, the rest will continue to work.
When installing some types of warm floor, it is necessary to comply with the requirements for flooring, installation methods and temperature regime. In accordance with such requirements, a comparative analysis of the main underfloor heating systems is performed before purchasing a particular model.
Coverage. When choosing a warm electric floor, you should focus on the final coating. Ceramic tiles and laminates are more suitable for cable systems and thermo-wraps.
Carbon rods, as well as infrared film, need to be laid under carpet, linoleum and laminate - these materials serve as excellent thermal conductors.Advantages of infrared films:
- Easy to install - they can be used immediately after installation.
- Easy to replace - if several elements are out of order, they can be easily replaced with new ones.
The disadvantages of infrared-type films include the unreliability of a connecting-type section. The main advantage of cable-type floors is that they are a solid conductor with the only weak point, that is, a coupling.
Its location is entered in the passport, so that in case of a breakdown, you can quickly replace everything. Moreover, the screed will serve as a protective layer that protects the floor from mechanical damage. If you use films with 12 V power supply, then you need to add a power supply to the system - far from the most reliable element.
Good advice! To protect yourself from current injury, you need to use differential current switches (that is, RCDs) that meet the requirements of GOST R 51326. 1-99.
Underfloor heating is mounted in all possible ways:
The first option is often used to heat living quarters, bathroom and kitchen. In such rooms, a cable heated floor is installed under the tiles.
Waterproofing and insulation material are placed under the system. If there is a heated room below, thermal insulation is not required, and the heating elements are mounted under the tile in the adhesive layer. Before buying a model, it is important to clarify the possibility of this styling. When installing the underfloor heating system under the laminate, you should choose infrared-type films, and a polyethylene layer is laid on the screed, and then electrical elements are laid. After the laminate and waterproofing are laid.
Designing a floor heating system is an important step that makes it possible to reduce costs and prevent local cable overheating. When developing a project, it is required to rely on the arrangement of household appliances and heavy pieces of furniture. These items can place an increased degree of stress on the underfloor heating cable systems. It is for this reason that it is worth choosing beds with legs, and cables and mats are placed 2 cm from wall surfaces. There should be at least 10 cm between the turns of an adjacent type of underfloor heating.
The place of installation of the thermal regulator should be entered into the project, and it is often mounted on a wall 1 meter from the floor.
At this stage, it is required to determine the choice of insulation material for the floor. This will determine when to start thermal insulation - before or after base preparation. The thickness of the insulation is chosen in accordance with the state of the floors. Thick thermal insulation is made above the basement and must be installed if there is soil under the floor.
For such thermal insulation, you should choose polystyrene foam or foam.It is better to install a thick layer of thermal insulation before leveling the floor. A thin heat-insulating layer is installed on the prepared surfaces, and the penofol is mounted so that the reflecting surface looks up. The use of this substrate makes it possible to direct heat into the room. The insulation material should be mounted at a distance from the wall, for example, in the case of expanded polystyrene, this figure is 0.
1 meter. When using penofol, it will have a thickness of 5 cm. At the junction of the walls with the insulation, it is important to glue the damper tape.
The cable must be laid on a perfectly flat surface, which is important to remove dust. As you can see, the preparation of the floor will include cleaning the surface in the presence of protrusions, as well as thorough dedusting.
It is better if there is a primer on the floor. In the presence of large altitude differences, it is required to equip the screed. If time for construction is short, it is important to make self-leveling floors. When installing the cable, the plank floor will waste some of the heat. At the same time, the walls are channeled for the cables that go to the thermostat.
Good advice! When installing an underfloor heating system in a renovated room, it is important to lay wires in cable ducts.
In order to ensure the reliable functioning of the system underfloor heating, it is important to properly lay the cable. A mat can be laid under the tile - it is a cable that is attached to a polymer-type mesh fabric. Installation methods are different.
Before installing the cable, it is necessary to check what resistance it will have.
After that, fasten the tape with the fastener to the floor. Due to the frequent positioning of the fastener, the installer can easily place the cable loops at a certain distance. There is another method of creating a cable underfloor heating under the tiles. A metal mesh is installed on the floor surface, to which the cable is attached. Its fastening is carried out by means of plastic clamps, and this system has a fairly high degree of rigidity.
The electrical cable is usually placed 0.2 meters from the wall. They are also styled in the form of snakes.
Installing heating mats is much easier than laying cables. To prepare the system, lay the mats on the floor before starting and then determine their resistance.
The laid mats are fastened with construction tape. Grounding and RCDs are required when installing a floor heating system. Care must be taken when installing the floor system in the bath, and it is better not to install an electric cable in the washing compartment. Before pouring the screed, it is necessary to check the cable resistance, and this must be done using a multimeter. If the data does not correspond to the indicators from the data sheet, it is important to correct installation errors.
The methods of installing the tiles are the same as in the case of a simple base. But here one technological feature should be taken into account - for a tile you need to buy an adhesive composition. Usually such mixtures have a certain labeling. They are characterized by a temperature range of application. When applying the mortar, it is important to watch that it is not empty.
With the right choice of floor elements, and even with the observance of the laying technology, it will last for years, while maintaining its primary functionality.
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