The basis of a good country house is a reliable stove. On it you can relax, sleep, cook and just bask. In ancient times, stove makers were highly prized. After all, the warm atmosphere in the house in winter depended on them. The process of laying the stove is a crucial and important moment.
Therefore, it is so important to purchase high-quality materials for this, including a refractory mixture.
The mortar for laying a furnace requires close attention. Its proportions must be accurately measured
The refractory mixture for the masonry of furnaces includes various components. That is, the quality of the masonry of the stove and fireplace will depend on the batch. The main function of the mixture is to provide heat resistance, strength and tightness.
If the solution is mixed incorrectly, certain problems may arise. For example, masonry will crack or carbon monoxide leaks. In order to build a kiln you will need a mixture of refractory clay and refractory fireclay bricks. Since clay is considered the best fixer for elements, it is most often used.
The proportions of each binder will depend on the purpose of the material.
For example, the composition for decorating a home will be different from the composition for fixing parts. Refractory mixtures for masonry stoves and fireplaces include several bonding elements.
In addition to the main component of the clay, the mixture includes cement. The last component gives rigidity to the entire solution. Even if you shift the cement a little, it will not affect the mixture in any way.
But the strength may decrease if the binder is slightly exceeded. That is, the less clay is in the solution, the higher its quality. You should also not replace clay with cement or lime.
Mortar for oven masonry is viscous and plastic. It should not be liquid, exfoliate and crumble.
It is not necessary to make thickened seams on the oven. The most optimal joint size is from 1 to 3 mm. Sand grain no more than 1 mm. With a coarse fraction, the amount of sand additive will also change. Its proportions are calculated from the initial amount of the clay mixture.
If there is a lot of clay, then it is diluted, that is, 2 parts of sand are used for one part of clay. High-quality clay with a fine-grained filler is mixed one to one.
Possible additions and inclusions in the refractory mixture for furnaces
Master, when laying the oven, it can change the composition of the mixture at its discretion. For example, add salt or cement. In general, the standard prohibits mixing additional substances.
But there are also exceptions.
If you nevertheless decide to add other components to your solution, then you need to adhere to certain proportions: 150 g of salt is needed for 10 kg of clay composition and here add cement of the M400 brand in an amount of 1 kg.
Do not forget about sand and clay, they must be taken in 2 buckets. As a result, you will get a high-quality mixture for laying refractory bricks.
Testing the strength and mixing of the refractory dry mix
Refractory mixtures for stoves and fireplaces are prepared as follows:
.. During this time, it must be thoroughly mixed;
You can check the readiness of the solution as follows:
If the mixture slides off the shovel slowly, then the solution is perfect.
To check plasticity, roll a rope 20 cm long and 1.
5 cm in diameter from the solution.
Next, wrap it around a wooden blank and see if there are more than 5 cracks on the fold, then the solution lacks clay.
And if there are no cracks at all, then it is necessary to add sand. Ideally, the number of small cracks with a normal solution will be 3-4 pieces.
When starting the construction of a stove and fireplace, you need to know some points.
Do not use a clay mixture to build a chimney, as this can lead to condensation and subsequent cracking of the clay.
To eliminate the situation with cracking, lime dough is added to the solution. It is this solution in composition that is used to lay the foundation, that is, 3 parts of sand and 1 hour of lime dough.
To obtain the last component, you need to mix 3 hours of water and 1 hour of quicklime. The dough is similar in composition and consistency to softened clay.
The density of the dough is 1400kg / m3.
Hardware stores offer ready-made masonry refractory mixes "Mertel" for the construction of furnaces.
Do not make lime dough, but at home, because lime can burn the respiratory tract and skin
. The fatter the dough, the more sand you need. Note that before starting work, it is necessary to wipe the dough through a special sieve, in which one cell is exactly 1x1 cm.
Why use cement in a solution
This component increases strength and weight mixtures. Refractory mixture for foundation or furnace is resistant to humid environment.
Below we consider the composition of what the refractory mixture consists of:
Starting to knead the solution, take the first two components, and soften the dough with water.
Only then can dry additives or components be added. Then mix everything, and if necessary add water at the end.
If you want to make your mortar not only refractory but also durable, you can add refractory concrete. If we compare the properties of materials, then the concrete solution will be no worse than lime.
Mix with the addition of concrete begins to harden after application in 45 minutes.
Before mixing all the components, they must be passed through a special metal sieve. After that, pour the required amount of sand into the prepared container, and a layer of cement on top.
Add water and stir until viscous. You should have a solution that is not thick, but not liquid either.
The composition of the refractory mixture for a monolithic furnace:
3 hours of chamotte sand.
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