Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

The use of innovative technology for arranging a "wet facade" allows increasing the thermal insulation properties of a brick house by more than 30%. The term "wet facade" itself means that building insulation works are carried out using mortars and mixtures, in the preparation of which a liquid substance is involved.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

"Wet facade": features

Facade arrangement is carried out in several stages - in particular, these are:

  • preparatory work;
  • installation of a basement profile;
  • installation of a heat-insulating layer;
  • device of a reinforcing layer;
  • stage of decorative finishing.

As a result of these works, the building receives improved operational characteristics, and its surface acquires a beautiful decorative appearance. Thus, not only the problem of insulation of wall structures is solved, but also an original facade design is created.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

House with a "wet facade"

The system of facade insulation by this method was invented in Germany in 1950 and was called "light wet way ". Twenty years later, it spread throughout the world. Over the years, constantly improving technologies and applying advanced materials, engineers were able to successfully solve the problems of energy saving of buildings and structures.

Required conditions for the installation of a "wet facade"

A "wet facade" is installed only after:

  • roof installation is completed;
  • waterproofing measures have been taken to protect the foundation;
  • window and door systems have been installed;
  • installation and connection of engineering communications have been completed;
  • work related to interior decoration of premises;
  • the building is dried.

It must be remembered that this type of work is carried out after the completion of all shrinkage processes of the building.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Advantages of a "wet facade"

As a rule, facade work is carried out in late spring or early autumn with a stable plus temperature in the range from +5 to +30 degrees Celsius. In special cases, insulation can be carried out at lower temperatures. For this, the building is covered with a special film and with the help of heat guns, a temperature of about +15 degrees is created in the working area. Also, in the process of carrying out work, it is necessary to protect the facade from precipitation.

What elements does the "wet facade" thermal insulation system consist of?

The following structural elements are included in the wet facade system:

  • base - wall to be insulated at home;
  • mechanical fastening of the thermal insulation layer - a dowel-fungus;
  • thermal insulation plate;
  • a layer of primer and adhesive solution;
  • reinforcing facade mesh;
  • adhesive composition;
  • decorative plaster;
  • metal profile.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Wet facade arrangement

All of the above structural components must comply with the normative values:

  • frost resistance ;
  • vapor permeability ;
  • thermal expansion;
  • water resistance.

For the installation of a "wet facade", you must have the following tools:

  • angle ;
  • building level;
  • tape measure;
  • wood hammer;
  • paint roller;
  • trowels for applying and smoothing mixtures;
  • construction trowel;
  • trowel for finishing leveling plaster;
  • hand saw;
  • hammer drill with a set of drills.

Prices for popular models of hammer drills

Hammer drills

Methods of fastening "wet facade"

Several methods are used for fastening the facade, let's get acquainted with them.

  1. The insulation is fixed to the wall using special dowels (mushroom dowels). Using this method, you can achieve the execution of thin layers of plaster up to 10 millimeters thick.

    Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

    Stages of insulation by the "wet facade" method (insulation is attached with dowels-fungi)

  2. Plates of mineral insulation are attached to the structure by mechanical method without the use of adhesive solutions. Moving mechanisms are used as load-bearing elements. In this case, the system can move along the wall, balancing the ongoing processes of shrinkage and mechanical stress. The layers must be at least 30 millimeters thick. Mineral slabs are attached to the wall to be insulated using stainless steel fixing hinges, which, in turn, are fixed to the supporting structure with traditional anchor dowels.

    One of the advantages of this system is the absence of strict requirements for the quality of the wall surface, due to which the method can be successfully used for the reconstruction of old buildings. Today, only two systems with moving elements are installed in Russia - "Thermofasad" from the Swedish manufacturer and Serporock, presented by the Finnish company.

    Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

    Systems with movable fastening of heat-insulating material

  3. The third method of fixing plates involves the use of a combination of dowels and glue. First, the insulation is attached to the wall with an adhesive, and after drying, the final fastening is performed with dowels. The load acting on the structure of the "wet facade" will be mainly taken by the dowels, and in order to prevent them from loosening, an adhesive solution is used.

    Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

    Installation of insulation using dowels-mushrooms and glue solution

The process of fixing plates to supporting structures using dowels and adhesive solutions are described below - in the section "Arrangement of the load-bearing wall with a heat-insulating layer". Due to its versatile abilities, the combined method is the most widespread and popular.

For all fastening methods, one condition must be observed - the insulation plates must be fixed in a checkerboard pattern. This is done in order to avoid cracking of the finish coat.

The choice of insulation material

The following materials are often used for facades.

  1. Mineral wool slabs . These products are not subject to combustion and have increased thermal insulation characteristics. The most popular are slabs made of basalt material. They have a peel strength index of more than 15 kPa. Mineral slabs should have a density in the range of 130 to 180 kilograms per cubic meter.

    Compliance with these parameters is necessary so that the destruction of the final layers of plaster does not occur.

    Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

    About the brands of mineral wool and where each of them is used

  2. Foam polystyrene (foam) plates . These materials have excellent thermal conductivity and increased lightness compared to mineral wool. Polyfoam has good flammability, and using special fire-resistant processing agents, they seek to eliminate its significant disadvantages. In special cases, fire protection liners made of mineral fibers with a width of up to 15 centimeters can be installed between the foam plates throughout the entire depth of the insulation system.

    Thanks to such measures, the structure becomes non-combustible. Expanded polystyrene boards must have a tensile strength of at least 100 kPa.

    Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

    Foam plastic as insulation

Table. Comparison of the properties of mineral wool and foam.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Comparative table of characteristics of expanded polystyrene and mineral wool

Important to know! The type and thickness of the reinforcement is determined by the design organization responsible for the preparation of the work project.

These characteristics depend on the type of wall material and climatic factors specific to the area.

Table. Selection of insulation thickness for the main climatic zones of Russia.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Table of insulation thickness selection for the main climatic zones of Russia

Prices for thermal insulation materials

Thermal insulation materials

Technology of the "wet facade" device

Carrying out work on the construction of the "wet facade" includes four technological stages, which will be discussed below.

Stage 1.

Preparatory work

At this stage of the work, it is necessary to prepare the surface of the load-bearing wall for insulation.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Scaffolding will greatly simplify the work

The preparatory activity includes the following activities:

  • installation scaffolding;
  • protection of the working platform from precipitation with a special film or reinforced mesh;
  • cleaning the wall surface from contamination;
  • removal of pieces of hardened cement mortar;
  • elimination of mold and mildew;
  • removal of the old coating;
  • removal from the wall of various kinds of metal elements - reinforcement, nails, anchors and other fasteners;
  • sealing cracks and irregularities with mortar (differences of no more than 1 centimeter per meter of length are allowed).

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Preparing the facade for insulation

Next, the wall is treated with a primer. This procedure is extremely necessary to improve the adhesion of the insulation boards to the surface of the supporting structure. This type of work is performed as follows.

Step 1. Prepare working tools - a container for solution preparation (bucket or tank), a brush and a roller.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

A brush and roller is required to apply the primer

Step 2. A specific type of primer is selected - for finishing For walls, a polymer-based primer (epoxy and polyurethane) is widely used.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Acrylic primer Eskaro Contact Grunt

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Porous mineral substrates as on photos, especially need priming

Step 3.

The required amount of dry primer is poured into the mixing container.

Step 4. Add the required amount of water, which is indicated on the primer package.

Step 5. The resulting substance is mixed until a homogeneous consistency and the disappearance of lumps.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Applying a primer to the facade of the house

The ready-to-use mixture is applied to the wall surface with a roller or brush. The number of layers is determined by the characteristics of the primer and the specific technology of the work.

Prices for front primer

Front primer

Stage 2. Installing the basement profile

After the priming of the working surface, the basement profile is mounted. This structural element is the basis for the entire insulation system.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Types of basement profile

It is installed in a strictly horizontal position using a building level. Its purpose is to align the facade in a horizontal plane and to protect the insulation boards from the negative impact of the external environment.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Fixing the basement profile

The profile device is carried out in compliance with certain rules.

  1. Installation is made at a distance of 40 centimeters from the ground. To eliminate the effects of thermal expansion, a gap of about 3 millimeters is provided between the metal strips.

  2. The strips are fixed using a screwdriver with special self-tapping screws with an installation step of 10-20 centimeters.
  3. A special corner profile is used to arrange the corners of structures.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

This profile is designed to protect corners from accidental damage

Stage 3. Installation of insulation material

This stage is the process of gluing the insulation to the wall. Before starting work, it is necessary to prepare an adhesive solution.

Step 1. The content of the bag with dry material is poured into the mixing container.

Step 2. In compliance with the proportion, a strictly defined amount of water is poured - the proportions depend on the type of building mixture, the nature of the working surface, the weight and structure of the insulation boards.

Step 3.

Thorough mixing is performed.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Glue mixing

Step 4. The mixture is brought to the desired consistency and infused for 5 minutes.

Step 5. Final mixing is carried out, after which the solution is ready for use.

The prepared solution is applied to the surface of the mineral board in one of the following ways:

  • the glue mixture is evenly distributed with a spatula over the entire area of ​​the insulation board;
  • glue is applied evenly around the entire perimeter , and about 6-8 "cakes" of the solution are applied in the center of the product.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Methods for applying the adhesive solution to the mineral wool slabs

To check the quality of the adhesive application to the insulation slab, tap on glued material structure and listen carefully to the sound. If the stove vibrates strongly and produces muffled sounds characteristic of hollow objects, it can be said with a high degree of certainty that the installation is of poor quality and the situation must be corrected immediately. In any case, the adhesive mixture must cover at least 40% of the area of ​​the mineral product.

After applying glue to the insulation, the first row of plates is installed.

Products must be displayed very carefully using a level, since the quality of the subsequent installation of the structure will depend on this. The next rows of insulation are arranged by knitting so that the seams between the plates do not coincide, otherwise the final layers of plaster will crack.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

First row of slabs

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Checking the second row with level

Mineral wool slabs should fit tightly to each other, a gap of no more than 3 millimeters is allowed. Failure to comply with this requirement leads to the appearance of negative factors in the form of so-called cold bridges. The latter act as an intermediary between the external environment and the insulated structure and significantly reduce the efficiency of the building's thermal protection.

Also, temperature bridges are one of the reasons for the formation of condensation inside the insulation, which contributes to the occurrence of mold and mildew harmful to health.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

To give the insulation masonry additional rigidity, at the corners the slabs are laid with the so-called "toothed connection" along the entire height of the wall

If, nevertheless, an oversight was made in the form of gaps between the insulation plates with a size of more than 5 millimeters, do not despair. This defect can be corrected with polyurethane foam, blowing it into voids in the joint area. Also for these purposes, you can use foam strips of the required size.

In order for the adhesive composition to gain the necessary hardness and strength, the insulation glued to the facade stands for some time.

This period depends on the production technology, the characteristics of the glue and the ambient temperature. The minimum allowable time is 36 hours at normal temperature (20 ± 2C 0 ).

Important! It is necessary to strictly follow the requirements of the technology and the instructions of the material manufacturer.

Types of fasteners and the requirements for them

After the glue solution has set, it is time to fix the insulation boards using special dowels. The dowel is an important element of the fastening system, as it takes a significant weight load of the insulation structure and the effects of wind.

The main condition for the work is the compatibility of fasteners with all insulation materials.

Two types of fixing dowels are used to fix the insulation boards:

  • screw - the spacer component looks like a screw;

    Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

    Screw dowel dowel Tech-KREP IZR

  • hammered - the spacer is made in the form of a nail.

    Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

    Driven disc dowels

Screw are used for fastening to walls made of hollow brick or concrete. Driven ones are used for fastening to structures consisting of solid bricks and reinforced concrete.

Installation of insulation boards using dowels is carried out as follows.

  1. With the help of a perforator and a special drill, holes are drilled in the load-bearing wall through the thermal insulation layer. Depending on the material of construction, this process can be carried out by shock (in solid blocks) or non-shock (in hollow materials).

    Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

    Method of installation of disc dowels for insulation

  2. A dowel is inserted into the hole and the thermal insulation plates are fixed by driving or screwing the spacer into dowel rod - it all depends on the type of fastener used (screw or driven).

    Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

    Schemes for installing dowels on insulation

Important to know! The method of installing the spacer must be exactly as specified by the manufacturer of that product. It is strictly forbidden to install spacer elements with a defect in the form of a skew.

When installing the push-in dowel, it is important not to damage the expansion anchor.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Fastening with disc dowels completed

Since the dowel penetrates through all structural layers of insulation, it must have minimum thermal conductivity. To successfully solve this problem, special plastic containers are used, where metal fasteners are placed.

Certain requirements are imposed on the fastening system.

  1. The dowel must have a thermal head.

  2. The plastic container must be made of a material that is highly resistant to alkalis.
  3. The dowel shank must be zinc coated to protect it from the effects of corrosion that can occur from condensation on its surface.
  4. Dowels must be resistant to temperatures ranging from -50 to +80 degrees Celsius.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Scheme of fastening a sheet of insulation using dowels

The number of fasteners per square meter is determined based on:

  • the weight of the fastening system;
  • the mass of the glued plates;
  • the nature of the insulated zone;
  • the magnitude of the wind load.

As a rule, about 5 dowels per 1 square meter (or 8, if the building has more than 5 floors) are used to fix mineral plates to the supporting structure of the building.

Stage 4. Insulation reinforcement work

The reinforcement component is a layer designed to give the insulation structure the required strength and rigidity. In the future, this layer also acts as the basis for applying decorative layers of plaster. The installation of the reinforcing mesh begins from the corners of the door and window openings, moving on to the outer corners of the building, and after that work begins on the main sections of the walls.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Scheme of the reinforcement layer in the "wet facade"

Table.

Stages of the reinforcement process.

Steps, illustrations Description of actions

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Step 1

An adhesive solution is applied to the insulation boards.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Step 2

A fiberglass mesh is applied to the layer of adhesive mixture, which is impregnated with a special composition to protect against the negative effects of the external environment.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Step 3

The reinforcing mesh is covered from above with the same adhesive solution.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Setting corners with a reinforcing mesh

The thickness of the reinforcement layer is not must exceed 6 millimeters.

At the same time, the construction mesh should be located at a distance of 2 millimeters from the surface.

Reinforcement can be carried out with or without a rough finish. In the first case, before installing the mesh, an additional leveling layer of plaster is applied to eliminate surface defects. The advantage of this procedure is a smoother surface.

Stage 5.

Decorative finishing

After the reinforcement layer has dried (at least 3 days), decorative plaster is applied over it, the main functions of which are to protect insulation and provide an attractive appearance.

Prices for popular types of plaster

Plaster

Facade protection implies the protection of the insulation structure from negative influences:

  • wind load;
  • ultraviolet radiation;
  • frost effects;
  • temperature drops;
  • atmospheric precipitation.

Before starting work, it is necessary to select the required type of plaster and carry out its preparation. An adhesive composition is prepared in the same way as a building one for thermal insulation boards - a dry mixture is poured into a mixing container, poured with water, thoroughly mixed until a homogeneous mass is made and allowed to stand for several minutes.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Mineral plaster mixtures "Brosex"

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Facade plaster "Perfect"

The proportions of the plaster mix and water are usually 1: 2 or 1: 1.

5. They are selected based on the technology of the work, the type, purpose and characteristics of the mortar. The decorative finishing process consists of the following steps.

Step 1. The mixture is applied with a spatula to the wall.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Application of decorative plaster "bark beetle"

Step 2. The composition is evenly distributed over small areas.

Step 3. Using a special device (plaster trowel), the layer to be plastered is rubbed.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Grouting the plaster in circular motions

After the plaster is dry, paint it.

Painting is performed using a pneumatic spray gun, brush or roller.

Optimal conditions for decorative finishing are:

  • temperature not less than +5 degrees Celsius;
  • no precipitation;
  • protection of the working surface from direct sunlight;
  • no wind.

In the conditions of a wide variety of climatic zones in Russia, plaster should have high moisture resistance, steam permeability, strength and resistance to aggressive reagents.

The device of a "wet facade" contributes not only to saving money spent on heating services, which are provided by public utilities, but also increases the operational performance of a residential building.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Elements of the "wet facade" system

Video - Installation of the "wet facade"

How to check the quality of work performed

When checking the quality of work, it is necessary to determine the following points:

  • in what volume and with what quality the preparation of the base was carried out;
  • are the norms for applying the cool composition to the insulation;
  • how smoothly and neatly the insulation is glued;
  • how tightly the mineral slabs adhere to each other ;
  • whether the fasteners protrude above the insulation;
  • how well the reinforcing mesh is laid;
  • whether the plaster layer does not crumble after application;
  • whether there are protruding irregularities along the entire area of ​​the facade;
  • whether there are cracks on the facade of the building itself, as well as in the corners of door and window structures;
  • whether the facade is well protected from precipitation from window sills and roof ebbs.

In the event that all norms, rules, instructions for the selection of material and the production of work have been observed, the "wet facade" will effectively save heat, will serve faithfully for many years.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Frequent installation mistakes

The main advantages of the "wet facade" technology

The effectiveness of this method of insulation is confirmed by the following advantages:

  • increase in the thermal insulation performance of the structure;
  • update the appearance of the building facade;
  • low weight of materials, which does not affect the bearing indicators buildings;
  • high-quality sound insulation of building walls;
  • low material consumption of the mounting frame;
  • low complexity of technological procedures;
  • resistance of plaster to mechanical stress and excellent resistance to the influence of negative atmospheric factors;
  • saving the internal area of ​​the room;
  • respectable appearance.

When using this method, there is a significant saving of funds that are spent on heating a residential building. In addition, the dew point moves to the outer layers of the insulation, which avoids mold and mildew.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Dew point shift pattern when using a "wet facade"

The use of high-tech materials contributes to an even distribution of heat inside the room, where there are no cold zones near door and window openings.

In hot weather, the "wet façade" keeps the interior cool due to its very low thermal conductivity. All this allows you to create a favorable and healthy atmosphere inside the home.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z

Heat loss in a non-insulated house

In addition to the advantages of this wonderful technology, there are a number of vulnerabilities in it. The disadvantages of using a "wet facade" include the following points: the impossibility of performing work at temperatures below +5 degrees Celsius, high humidity and during precipitation.Also, it is impossible to make insulation when exposed to direct sunlight and strong gusts of wind.

This technology is suitable for all types of houses, except for wooden blockhouses made of logs. It is successfully used for the reconstruction of old buildings and the insulation of new buildings.

Wet facade: features of insulation technology - an encyclopedia of facades from A to Z How to insulate a house from a 150x150 bar outside?

You can find detailed instructions on insulating a house from a 150x150 bar outside in this article! We also recommend that you read about the insulation of a wooden house with mineral wool outside for siding.

Video - "Wet facade": device and materials

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