The use of innovative technology for arranging a "wet facade" allows increasing the thermal insulation properties of a brick house by more than 30%. The term "wet facade" itself means that building insulation works are carried out using mortars and mixtures, in the preparation of which a liquid substance is involved.
"Wet facade": features
Facade arrangement is carried out in several stages - in particular, these are:
As a result of these works, the building receives improved operational characteristics, and its surface acquires a beautiful decorative appearance. Thus, not only the problem of insulation of wall structures is solved, but also an original facade design is created.
House with a "wet facade"
The system of facade insulation by this method was invented in Germany in 1950 and was called "light wet way ". Twenty years later, it spread throughout the world. Over the years, constantly improving technologies and applying advanced materials, engineers were able to successfully solve the problems of energy saving of buildings and structures.
A "wet facade" is installed only after:
It must be remembered that this type of work is carried out after the completion of all shrinkage processes of the building.
Advantages of a "wet facade"
As a rule, facade work is carried out in late spring or early autumn with a stable plus temperature in the range from +5 to +30 degrees Celsius. In special cases, insulation can be carried out at lower temperatures. For this, the building is covered with a special film and with the help of heat guns, a temperature of about +15 degrees is created in the working area. Also, in the process of carrying out work, it is necessary to protect the facade from precipitation.
The following structural elements are included in the wet facade system:
Wet facade arrangement
All of the above structural components must comply with the normative values:
For the installation of a "wet facade", you must have the following tools:
Several methods are used for fastening the facade, let's get acquainted with them.
Stages of insulation by the "wet facade" method (insulation is attached with dowels-fungi)
One of the advantages of this system is the absence of strict requirements for the quality of the wall surface, due to which the method can be successfully used for the reconstruction of old buildings. Today, only two systems with moving elements are installed in Russia - "Thermofasad" from the Swedish manufacturer and Serporock, presented by the Finnish company.
Systems with movable fastening of heat-insulating material
Installation of insulation using dowels-mushrooms and glue solution
The process of fixing plates to supporting structures using dowels and adhesive solutions are described below - in the section "Arrangement of the load-bearing wall with a heat-insulating layer". Due to its versatile abilities, the combined method is the most widespread and popular.
For all fastening methods, one condition must be observed - the insulation plates must be fixed in a checkerboard pattern. This is done in order to avoid cracking of the finish coat.
The following materials are often used for facades.
Compliance with these parameters is necessary so that the destruction of the final layers of plaster does not occur.
About the brands of mineral wool and where each of them is used
Thanks to such measures, the structure becomes non-combustible. Expanded polystyrene boards must have a tensile strength of at least 100 kPa.
Foam plastic as insulation
Table. Comparison of the properties of mineral wool and foam.
Comparative table of characteristics of expanded polystyrene and mineral wool
Important to know! The type and thickness of the reinforcement is determined by the design organization responsible for the preparation of the work project.
These characteristics depend on the type of wall material and climatic factors specific to the area.
Table. Selection of insulation thickness for the main climatic zones of Russia.
Table of insulation thickness selection for the main climatic zones of Russia
Thermal insulation materials
Carrying out work on the construction of the "wet facade" includes four technological stages, which will be discussed below.
At this stage of the work, it is necessary to prepare the surface of the load-bearing wall for insulation.
Scaffolding will greatly simplify the work
The preparatory activity includes the following activities:
Preparing the facade for insulation
Next, the wall is treated with a primer. This procedure is extremely necessary to improve the adhesion of the insulation boards to the surface of the supporting structure. This type of work is performed as follows.
Step 1. Prepare working tools - a container for solution preparation (bucket or tank), a brush and a roller.
A brush and roller is required to apply the primer
Step 2. A specific type of primer is selected - for finishing For walls, a polymer-based primer (epoxy and polyurethane) is widely used.
Acrylic primer Eskaro Contact Grunt
Porous mineral substrates as on photos, especially need priming
The required amount of dry primer is poured into the mixing container.
Step 4. Add the required amount of water, which is indicated on the primer package.
Step 5. The resulting substance is mixed until a homogeneous consistency and the disappearance of lumps.
Applying a primer to the facade of the house
The ready-to-use mixture is applied to the wall surface with a roller or brush. The number of layers is determined by the characteristics of the primer and the specific technology of the work.
After the priming of the working surface, the basement profile is mounted. This structural element is the basis for the entire insulation system.
Types of basement profile
It is installed in a strictly horizontal position using a building level. Its purpose is to align the facade in a horizontal plane and to protect the insulation boards from the negative impact of the external environment.
Fixing the basement profile
The profile device is carried out in compliance with certain rules.
This profile is designed to protect corners from accidental damage
This stage is the process of gluing the insulation to the wall. Before starting work, it is necessary to prepare an adhesive solution.
Step 1. The content of the bag with dry material is poured into the mixing container.
Step 2. In compliance with the proportion, a strictly defined amount of water is poured - the proportions depend on the type of building mixture, the nature of the working surface, the weight and structure of the insulation boards.
Thorough mixing is performed.
Step 4. The mixture is brought to the desired consistency and infused for 5 minutes.
Step 5. Final mixing is carried out, after which the solution is ready for use.
The prepared solution is applied to the surface of the mineral board in one of the following ways:
Methods for applying the adhesive solution to the mineral wool slabs
To check the quality of the adhesive application to the insulation slab, tap on glued material structure and listen carefully to the sound. If the stove vibrates strongly and produces muffled sounds characteristic of hollow objects, it can be said with a high degree of certainty that the installation is of poor quality and the situation must be corrected immediately. In any case, the adhesive mixture must cover at least 40% of the area of the mineral product.
After applying glue to the insulation, the first row of plates is installed.
Products must be displayed very carefully using a level, since the quality of the subsequent installation of the structure will depend on this. The next rows of insulation are arranged by knitting so that the seams between the plates do not coincide, otherwise the final layers of plaster will crack.
First row of slabs
Checking the second row with level
Mineral wool slabs should fit tightly to each other, a gap of no more than 3 millimeters is allowed. Failure to comply with this requirement leads to the appearance of negative factors in the form of so-called cold bridges. The latter act as an intermediary between the external environment and the insulated structure and significantly reduce the efficiency of the building's thermal protection.
Also, temperature bridges are one of the reasons for the formation of condensation inside the insulation, which contributes to the occurrence of mold and mildew harmful to health.
To give the insulation masonry additional rigidity, at the corners the slabs are laid with the so-called "toothed connection" along the entire height of the wall
If, nevertheless, an oversight was made in the form of gaps between the insulation plates with a size of more than 5 millimeters, do not despair. This defect can be corrected with polyurethane foam, blowing it into voids in the joint area. Also for these purposes, you can use foam strips of the required size.
In order for the adhesive composition to gain the necessary hardness and strength, the insulation glued to the facade stands for some time.
This period depends on the production technology, the characteristics of the glue and the ambient temperature. The minimum allowable time is 36 hours at normal temperature (20 ± 2C 0 ).
Important! It is necessary to strictly follow the requirements of the technology and the instructions of the material manufacturer.
After the glue solution has set, it is time to fix the insulation boards using special dowels. The dowel is an important element of the fastening system, as it takes a significant weight load of the insulation structure and the effects of wind.
The main condition for the work is the compatibility of fasteners with all insulation materials.
Two types of fixing dowels are used to fix the insulation boards:
Screw dowel dowel Tech-KREP IZR
Driven disc dowels
Screw are used for fastening to walls made of hollow brick or concrete. Driven ones are used for fastening to structures consisting of solid bricks and reinforced concrete.
Installation of insulation boards using dowels is carried out as follows.
Method of installation of disc dowels for insulation
Schemes for installing dowels on insulation
Important to know! The method of installing the spacer must be exactly as specified by the manufacturer of that product. It is strictly forbidden to install spacer elements with a defect in the form of a skew.
When installing the push-in dowel, it is important not to damage the expansion anchor.
Fastening with disc dowels completed
Since the dowel penetrates through all structural layers of insulation, it must have minimum thermal conductivity. To successfully solve this problem, special plastic containers are used, where metal fasteners are placed.
Certain requirements are imposed on the fastening system.
Scheme of fastening a sheet of insulation using dowels
The number of fasteners per square meter is determined based on:
As a rule, about 5 dowels per 1 square meter (or 8, if the building has more than 5 floors) are used to fix mineral plates to the supporting structure of the building.
The reinforcement component is a layer designed to give the insulation structure the required strength and rigidity. In the future, this layer also acts as the basis for applying decorative layers of plaster. The installation of the reinforcing mesh begins from the corners of the door and window openings, moving on to the outer corners of the building, and after that work begins on the main sections of the walls.
Scheme of the reinforcement layer in the "wet facade"
Stages of the reinforcement process.
|Steps, illustrations||Description of actions|
|An adhesive solution is applied to the insulation boards.|
|A fiberglass mesh is applied to the layer of adhesive mixture, which is impregnated with a special composition to protect against the negative effects of the external environment.|
|The reinforcing mesh is covered from above with the same adhesive solution.|
Setting corners with a reinforcing mesh
The thickness of the reinforcement layer is not must exceed 6 millimeters.
At the same time, the construction mesh should be located at a distance of 2 millimeters from the surface.
Reinforcement can be carried out with or without a rough finish. In the first case, before installing the mesh, an additional leveling layer of plaster is applied to eliminate surface defects. The advantage of this procedure is a smoother surface.
After the reinforcement layer has dried (at least 3 days), decorative plaster is applied over it, the main functions of which are to protect insulation and provide an attractive appearance.
Facade protection implies the protection of the insulation structure from negative influences:
Before starting work, it is necessary to select the required type of plaster and carry out its preparation. An adhesive composition is prepared in the same way as a building one for thermal insulation boards - a dry mixture is poured into a mixing container, poured with water, thoroughly mixed until a homogeneous mass is made and allowed to stand for several minutes.
Mineral plaster mixtures "Brosex"
Facade plaster "Perfect"
The proportions of the plaster mix and water are usually 1: 2 or 1: 1.
5. They are selected based on the technology of the work, the type, purpose and characteristics of the mortar. The decorative finishing process consists of the following steps.
Step 1. The mixture is applied with a spatula to the wall.
Application of decorative plaster "bark beetle"
Step 2. The composition is evenly distributed over small areas.
Step 3. Using a special device (plaster trowel), the layer to be plastered is rubbed.
Grouting the plaster in circular motions
After the plaster is dry, paint it.
Painting is performed using a pneumatic spray gun, brush or roller.
Optimal conditions for decorative finishing are:
In the conditions of a wide variety of climatic zones in Russia, plaster should have high moisture resistance, steam permeability, strength and resistance to aggressive reagents.
The device of a "wet facade" contributes not only to saving money spent on heating services, which are provided by public utilities, but also increases the operational performance of a residential building.
Elements of the "wet facade" system
When checking the quality of work, it is necessary to determine the following points:
In the event that all norms, rules, instructions for the selection of material and the production of work have been observed, the "wet facade" will effectively save heat, will serve faithfully for many years.
Frequent installation mistakes
The effectiveness of this method of insulation is confirmed by the following advantages:
When using this method, there is a significant saving of funds that are spent on heating a residential building. In addition, the dew point moves to the outer layers of the insulation, which avoids mold and mildew.
Dew point shift pattern when using a "wet facade"
The use of high-tech materials contributes to an even distribution of heat inside the room, where there are no cold zones near door and window openings.
In hot weather, the "wet façade" keeps the interior cool due to its very low thermal conductivity. All this allows you to create a favorable and healthy atmosphere inside the home.
Heat loss in a non-insulated house
In addition to the advantages of this wonderful technology, there are a number of vulnerabilities in it. The disadvantages of using a "wet facade" include the following points: the impossibility of performing work at temperatures below +5 degrees Celsius, high humidity and during precipitation.Also, it is impossible to make insulation when exposed to direct sunlight and strong gusts of wind.
This technology is suitable for all types of houses, except for wooden blockhouses made of logs. It is successfully used for the reconstruction of old buildings and the insulation of new buildings.
How to insulate a house from a 150x150 bar outside?
You can find detailed instructions on insulating a house from a 150x150 bar outside in this article! We also recommend that you read about the insulation of a wooden house with mineral wool outside for siding.
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